Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Salmonella-1997 Report
headline bar

 FDA/USDA/CDC

National Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring Program - Veterinary Isolates

April, 1998

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction

Goals and Objectives

Methodology

Table of Antimicrobics

Table 1. Top 15 serotypes.

Table 2. Distribution of isolates.

Table 3. Total % sensitive, intermediate, resistant

Table 4. Total % resistance by species/sources

Table 5. % resistance for non-clinical isolates.

Table 6. % resistance for HACCP samples

Table 7. % resistance for clinical isolates

Table 8. % resistance for top 15 serotypes

Table 9. Multiple antimicrobial resistance

Table 10. Most frequent resistance patterns

Table 11. Most frequent resistance patterns for 5 or more antimicrobics.

Table 12. Total number ACSSuT


Figure 1. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates

Figure 2. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Slaughter 

Figure 3. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Cattle

Figure 4. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Chicken

Figure 5. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Swine

Figure 6. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Turkey

Figure 7. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Dairy Cattle

Figure 8. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Cull Dairy Cattle

Figure 9. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Swine

Figure 10. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Cats

Figure 11. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Dogs

Figure 12. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Exotics

Figure 13. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Salmonella Isolates from Horses

Figure 14. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for S. typhimurium from All Species 

Figure 15. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for S. montevideo from All Species 

Figure 16. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for S. kentucky from All Species

Figure 17. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for S. anatum from All Species

Figure 18. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for S. heidelburg from All Species

Figure 19. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for S. agona from All Species

Figure 20. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes from Cattle (Diagnostic)

Figure 21. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes from Cattle (Slaughter)

Figure 22. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes from Chicken (Diagnostic)

Figure 23. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes from Chicken (Slaughter)

Figure 24. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes in Dairy Cattle (Non-Clinical On Farm)

Figure 25. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes in Dairy Cattle (Non-Clinical - Cull)

Figure 26. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes from Swine (Diagnostic)

Figure 27. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes from Swine (Slaughter)

Figure 28. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes from Swine (Non-Clinical On Farm)

Figure 29. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes from Turkey (Diagnostic)

Figure 30. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations Major Serotypes from Turkey (Slaughter)


INTRODUCTION
 
The emergence of resistance to antimicrobics has compromised control of many bacterial pathogens and is a global problem. Additionally, multiple resistance has emerged among many bacterial strains including Salmonella species. A penta-resistant strain of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 in which the resistance genes have been chromosomally integrated is proving to be particularly problematic resulting in increased morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans.

The development of resistant human pathogenic bacteria may result from direct use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals and acquisition of resistant organisms or resistance factors from animal and environmental bacteria. The intestinal flora of animals that have been exposed to antimicrobial agents can serve as a reservoir of resistant bacteria.

Because of the public health concerns associated with the use of antimicrobics in food-producing animals, an antimicrobial resistance monitoring program was proposed by the Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA) as a post-marketing activity to help ensure the continued safety and efficacy of veterinary antimicrobics. In 1996, the CDC, the USDA, and the FDA established the National Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring System to prospectively monitor changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities of zoonotic pathogens from human and animal clinical specimens, from healthy farm animals, and from carcasses of food-producing animals at slaughter. Non-typhoid Salmonella was selected as the sentinel organism. 

Veterinary testing is conducted at USDA's Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center in Athens, GA. Testing is done using a semi-automated system (SensititreTM Accumed, Westlake Ohio). This report summarizes the percentage of isolates collected during calendar year 1997 that were susceptible, intermediate, or resistant to 17 antimicrobics (n=2,391). The 17 antimicrobics were chosen to be representative of common antimicrobics (or classes of antimicrobics) used in animal and human medicine. A subsequent report will summarize the minimal inhibitory concentrations obtained for these isolates and will provide a discussion of the data. Questions regarding this report should be directed to any of the people listed below. 

Paula J. Fedorka-Cray, PhD
USDA-ARS-RRC, Athens, GA
706-546-3305

Marissa Miller, DVM, MPH and Linda Tollefson, DVM, MPH 
FDA-CVM, Rockville, MD
301-827-0186

David A. Dargatz, DVM, PhD and Nora E. Wineland, DVM, MS
USDA-APHIS-VS-CEAH, Fort Collins, CO
970-490-8000


GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goals and objectives of the monitoring program are to:

1) provide descriptive data on the extent and temporal trends of antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella and other enteric organisms from the human and animal populations;

2) facilitate the identification of resistance in humans and animals as it arises;

3) provide timely information to veterinarians and physicians;

4) prolong the life span of approved drugs by promoting the prudent and judicious use of antimicrobics; and

5) identify areas for more detailed investigation.

Information resulting from the monitoring program and follow-up outbreak investigations will be distributed to veterinarians, physicians, and food animal producer groups. Use of the information will be targeted to redirecting drug use so as to diminish the development and spread of resistance over the short term with directives involving long-term use developed in collaboration with the appropriate professional practitioner groups. Outbreak investigations and field studies will be initiated as a result of major shifts or changes in resistance patterns in either animal or human isolates.


METHODOLOGY
 

Isolation:

Salmonella isolates with known serotypes are struck onto 5% sheep blood agar (SBA) plates for isolation. Plates are incubates at 37oC overnight. The following morning one well-isolated colony from each plate is picked and regrown on a second SBA plate which is incubated at 37oC overnight.

Screening for resistance:

One sterile dd H20 tube and 1 Mueller- Hinton broth (MHB) tube is set in a rack for each isolate. One substrate strip is added to each MHB for a minimum of 15 minutes prior to inoculation (Note: Once substrate strips are added to MHB tubes, they must be used within 1 hour or discarded). Two to six colonies from the second SBA are collected with a sterile cotton tipped swab and used to inoculate the water tube. The tube is vortexed and the density is adjusted with the Nephlometer as per manufacturer's instructions (Note: the machine is calibrated with a McFarland standard prior to starting the procedure). A 10 ml disposable loop from Sensititre is used to transfer 10 ml from the inoculated water to a MHB tube containing the substrate strip. The MHB tube is vortexed and placed into the auto inoculator (typically one isolate per microtiter plate) as per manufacturer's instructions. The microtiter plate is incubated at 37oC for 18 - 20 hours (Note: The time for reading plates is 18-20 h, ideally all plates are read as close to 18 hrs. as possible). Record the time the microtiter plate is inoculated and read on a sheet. Do NOT read plates or keep data from plates >20 h old). (Note: Ideally plates should not be stacked while in the incubator. If stacking is required, stack no more than 2 plates high.)

Microtiter plates are read as per manufacturer's instructions

Freezing clones:

Using a sterile disposable 1 ml inoculating loop 6 colonies from the second SBA plate are picked and inoculated (by vigorously shaking the loop to dislodge bacteria) into 1 ml LB broth plus 30% glycerol in cryo vials. The vials are stored frozen at -70oC and labeled with the following information: 
 

Information

Example 

SURVEY

AB CLONE

STUDY

FSIS 95

ISOLATE # 

2345

DATE 

2/26/96


 
 
 

TABLE OF ANTIMICROBICS

Antimicrobic

Antimicrobic Concentrations

(ug/ml)*

Breakpoint
 

(R)        (I)          (S)

Amikacin

4 - 32

>64       32       <16 

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

0.5/0.25 - 32/16

>32       16         <8

Ampicillin

2 - 64

>32       16         <8

Apramycin

2 - 16

>32       16         <8

Ceftiofur

0.5 - 16

>8          4          <2

Ceftriaxone

0.25 - 16

>64       32         <

Cephalothin

1 - 32

>32       16         <8

Chloramphenicol

4 - 32

>32       16         <8

Ciprofloxacin

0.015 - 2

>4          2          <1

Gentamicin

0.25 - 16

>16        8          <4

Kanamycin

16 - 64

>64       32        <16

Nalidixic Acid

4 - 64

>32                 <16

Streptomycin

32 - 256

>64                 <32

Sulfamethoxazole

128 - 512

>512              <256

Tetracycline

4 - 64

>16        8          <4

Ticarcillin

2 - 128

>128       32       <16

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

0.12/2.4 - 4/76

>4/76            <2/38

* ranges were chosen to detect incremental changes in resistance based on previous 2 year data; ranges may be outside of the breakpoint value
 
RESULTS -
Veterinary Isolates
 

TABLE 1. Top 15 Salmonella serotypes identified for 1997 (N=2,391 total isolates) for all animal species
 
 

Serotype

Serogroup

Frequency (n)

Percent of Total

Montevideo

C1

221

9.2

Kentucky

C3

177

7.4

Typhimurium (copenhagen)*

B

171

7.2

Anatum

E4

169

7.1

Typhimurium*

B

157

6.6

Heidelberg

B

146

6.1

Agona

B

141

5.9

Cerro

K

116

4.9

Mbandaka

C1

92

3.8

Muenster

E1

89

3.7

Derby

B

70

2.9

Worthington

G2

62

2.6

Menhaden

E3

61

2.6

Meleagridis

E1

57

2.4

Hadar

C2

56

2.3


 
* typhimurium and typhimurium (copenhagen) isolates combined account for 328 (13.7%) of the total number of isolates 
 
 

TABLE 2: Distribution of isolates by species and clinical status

CLINICAL (isolates collected from NVSL; N=763)

Species

Total Number

Cattle

183

Swine

195

Chicken

153

Exotic

65

Turkey

49

Dog

38

Horse

52

Cat

28


 
NONCLINICAL (N=1,628)

Species

Number

Cattle

859*

Swine

225

Cattle feed

2

Swine feed

20

HACCP**

521

Chicken

214

Turkey

164

Swine

117

Cattle

28

Egg 

6

Misc***

2

*includes 99 samples which are of unidentified clinical status **samples collected from carcasses at slaughter with the exception of eggs ***species unknown
 
 

TABLE 3: Total percent sensitive, intermediate or resistant
 
 
 

 

Susceptible

Intermediate

Resistant

Antimicrobic

n

%

n

%

n

%

Amikacin

2391

100

0

0

0

0

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

2215

92.6

135

5.6

42

1.8

Ampicillin

2104

88.0

0

0

288

12.0

Apramycin

2345

98.1

4

0.2

41

1.7

Ceftiofur

2367

99.0

2

0.1

22

0.9

Ceftriaxone

2374

99.3

11

0.5

6

0.3

Cephalothin

2281

95.4

54

2.3

56

2.3

Chloramphenicol

2273

95.0

8

0.3

111

4.6

Ciprofloxacin

2391

100

0

0

0

0

Gentamicin

2211

92.5

39

1.6

140

5.8

Kanamycin

2145

89.7

4

0.2

242

10.1

Nalidixic Acid

2373

99.2

0

0

18

0.8

Streptomycin

1970

82.4

0

0

423

17.6

Sulfamethoxazole

1968

82.3

0

0

425

17.7

Tetracycline

1727

72.2

9

0.4

658

27.4

Ticarcillin

2109

88.2

4

0.2

278

11.6

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

2341

97.9

0

0

50

2.1


 

TABLE 4: Percent total resistance by species/sources (includes both clinical and nonclinical isolates)


 
 

Antimicrobic


 

Cattle

n=1,068


 

Swine

n=534

SPECIES
 

Chicken

n=367


 

Turkey

n=211


 

Horse

n=52

Amikacin

0

0

0

0

0

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

1.2

0.6

1.1

7.6

3.8

Ampicillin

9.3

12.7

11.2

18.5

19.2

Apramycin

0.1

6.6

0

1.9

0

Ceftiofur

0.2

0.4

0.3

6.2

1.9

Ceftriaxone

0.1

0

0

2.4

0

Cephalothin

1.6

0.7

2.5

8.5

7.7

Chloramphenicol

2.3

8.1

2.2

7.6

9.6

Ciprofloxacin

0

0

0

0

0

Gentamicin

0.5

4.9

14.4

24.2

7.7

Kanamycin

6.6

13.1

3.5

27.5

19.2

Nalidixic Acid

0

0

0.3

8.1

0

Streptomycin

9.6

23

22.1

37.9

17.3

Sulfamethoxazole

8.2

23.6

21.8

42.2

21.2

Tetracycline

13.9

50.2

17.4

58.3

23.1

Ticarcillin

8.8

12.7

11.2

17.5

19.2

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

0.7

5.2

0.8

2.8

9.6


 

TABLE 4: Percent total resistance by species/sources (includes both clinical and nonclinical isolates; continued)


 
 

Antimicrobic


 

Cattle
Feed

n=2


 

Swine
Feed

n=20

SPECIES
 
 

Exotic

n=65


 
 

Dog

n=38


 
 

Cat

n=28


 
 

Egg

n=6

Amikacin

0

0

0

0

0

0

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

0

5.0

0

0

10.7

0

Ampicillin

0

5.0

3.1

31.6

53.6

0

Apramycin

0

5.0

0

0

3.6

0

Ceftiofur

0

0

0

0

10.7

0

Ceftriaxone

0

0

0

0

0

0

Cephalothin

0

5.0

0

0

10.7

0

Chloramphenicol

0

0

0

13.2

28.6

0

Ciprofloxacin

0

0

0

0

0

0

Gentamicin

0

5.0

0

0

0

0

Kanamycin

0

10.0

3.1

18.4

32.1

0

Nalidixic Acid

0

0

0

0

0

0

Streptomycin

0

20.0

3.1

23.7

35.7

0

Sulfamethoxazole

0

5.0

3.1

31.6

50.0

0

Tetracycline

0

35.0

6.2

36.8

57.1

0

Ticarcillin

0

0

3.1

31.6

50.0

0

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

0

0

1.5

0

0

0

Note: 2 isolates that were unidentified were not resistant to any antimicrobic


 
 

Table 5: Percent resistance for non-clinical isolates (excluding HACCP samples)

Antimicrobic

Cattle

n=760

Swine

n=225

Amikacin

0

0

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

1.1

0.9

Ampicillin

4.1

1.3

Apramycin

0

10.7

Ceftiofur

0

0.4

Ceftriaxone

0

0

Cephalothin

1.7

0.9

Chloramphenicol

1.6

0

Ciprofloxacin

0

0

Gentamicin

0.1

6.7

Kanamycin

1.7

8.4

Nalidixic Acid

0

0

Streptomycin

4.1

7.6

Sulfamethoxazole

2.9

0.9

Tetracycline

8.0

27.6

Ticarcillin

3.6

1.3

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

0.1

0

Note: Samples are included only if they were able to be identified as non-clinical. This does not include 99 samples of undetermined clinical status
 
 

Table 6: Percent resistance for HACCP samples


 
 

Antimicrobic


 

Cattle

n=26


 

Swine

n=113

SPECIES
 

Chicken

n=214


 

Turkey

n=162


 

Egg

n=6

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

7.7

0

0.5

6.8

0

Ampicillin

19.2

16.8

11.7

13.0

0

Apramycin

0

2.7

0

0.6

0

Ceftiofur

0

0.9

0.5

5.6

0

Ceftriaxone

0

0

0

1.9

0

Cephalothin

0

0.9

1.4

7.4

0

Chloramphenicol

11.5

11.5

2.3

5.6

0

Ciprofloxacin

0

0

0

0

0

Gentamicin

0

1.8

17.8

18.5

0

Kanamycin

7.7

12.4

2.3

25.3

0

Nalidixic Acid

0

0

0

4.9

0

Streptomycin

19.2

27.4

24.3

35.2

0

Sulfamethoxazole

26.9

33.6

24.8

37.0

0

Tetracycline

30.8

51.3

20.6

54.9

0

Ticarcillin

19.2

16.8

11.7

13.0

0

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

3.8

1.8

0.5

3.7

0


 

Table 7: Percent resistance for clinical isolates*


 
 

Antimicrobic


 

Cattle

n=183


 

Swine

n=195

SPECIES
 

Chicken

n=153


 

Turkey

n=49


 

Horse

n=52

Amikacin

0

0

0

0

0

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

1.6

0.5

2.0

10.2

3.8

Ampicillin

32.2

23.6

10.5

36.7

19.2

Apramycin

0.6

3.6

0

6.1

0

Ceftiofur

0.6

0

0

8.2

1.9

Ceftriaxone

0.6

0

0

4.1

0

Cephalothin

1.6

0.5

3.9

12.2

7.7

Chloramphenicol

5.5

15.4

2.0

14.3

9.6

Ciprofloxacin

0

0

0

0

0

Gentamicin

2.2

4.6

9.8

42.9

7.7

Kanamycin

29.0

19.0

5.2

34.7

19.2

Nalidixic Acid

0

0

0.7

18.4

0

Streptomycin

33.9

38.5

19.0

46.9

17.3

Sulfamethoxazole

30.6

44.1

17.6

59.2

21.2

Tetracycline

36.6

75.4

13.1

69.4

23.1

Ticarcillin

31.7

23.6

10.5

32.7

19.2

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

1.6

13.3

1.3

0

9.6

Note: Clinical isolates in Table 7 were all obtained from the National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, IA


 

Table 7: Percent resistance for clinical isolates* (continued) 


 

Antimicrobic


 

Exotic

n=65

SPECIES
 

Dog

n=38


 

Cat

n=28

Amikacin

0

0

0

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

0

0

10.7

Ampicillin

3.1

31.6

53.6

Apramycin

0

0

3.6

Ceftiofur

0

0

10.7

Ceftriaxone

0

0

0

Cephalothin

0

0

10.7

Chloramphenicol

0

13.2

28.6

Ciprofloxacin

0

0

0

Gentamicin

0

0

0

Kanamycin

3.1

18.4

32.1

Nalidixic Acid

0

0

0

Streptomycin

3.1

23.7

35.7

Sulfamethoxazole

3.1

31.6

50.0

Tetracycline

6.2

36.8

57.1

Ticarcillin

3.1

31.6

50.0

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

1.5

0

0

Note: Clinical isolates in Table 7 were all obtained from the National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, IA
 
 

Table 8: Percent total resistance for the top 15 Salmonella serotypes from animal species/sources 


 
 
 
 
 
 

Antimicrobic


 
 
 
 

Montevi.

n=221


 
 
 
 

Kentucky

n=177


 

SEROTYPE
 

Typh(cop)

n=171

 


 
 
 
 

Anatum

n=169


 
 

Typhim.

n=157

Amikacin

0

0

0

0

0

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

0.5

1.7

4.7

0.6

7.0

Ampicillin

2.3

2.8

84.2

0.6

35.4

Apramycin

0

0

1.8

9.5

1.3

Ceftiofur

0.9

0

4.1

0

4.4

Ceftriaxone

0

0

1.2

0

1.3

Cephalothin

1.4

1.7

4.7

0.6

5.7

Chloramphenicol

0

0

36.8

0.6

20.9

Ciprofloxacin

0

0

0

0

0

Gentamicin

2.7

1.7

4.1

5.3

8.2

Kanamycin

1.8

1.7

49.7

0.6

19.0

Nalidixic Acid

0

0.6

2.9

0

1.9

Streptomycin

1.8

12.4

70.8

3.0

34.2

Sulfamethoxazole

1.8

3.4

82.5

3.6

38.0

Tetracycline

0.9

13.6

90.1

46.7

35.4

Ticarcillin

1.4

2.8

84.2

0.6

33.8

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

0

1.1

4.7

0

3.8


 

Table 8: Percent total resistance for the top 15 Salmonella serotypes from animal species/sources (continued)


 
 
 

Antimicrobic


 
 

Heidel.

n=146


 
 

Agona

n=141

SEROTYPE
 
 

Cerro

n=116


 
 

Mbandaka

n=92


 
 

Muenster

n=89

Amikacin

0

0

0

0

0

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

1.4

0.7

0.9

0

0

Ampicillin

15.1

2.8

0.9

2.2

2.2

Apramycin

6.2

0

0

0

0

Ceftiofur

0

0.7

0

0

0

Ceftriaxone

0

0

0

0

0

Cephalothin

3.4

1.4

0.9

1.1

2.2

Chloramphenicol

0.7

0

0

0

0

Ciprofloxacin

0

0

0

0

0

Gentamicin

27.4

1.4

0

1.1

13.5

Kanamycin

31.5

5.0

0

2.2

13.5

Nalidixic Acid

0

0.7

0

0

0

Streptomycin

45.9

4.3

0

2.2

12.4

Sulfamethoxazole

30.1

15.6

0

25.0

12.4

Tetracycline

34.9

25.5

12.1

33.7

19.1

Ticarcillin

15.1

2.1

0

2.2

2.2

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

0.7

0

0

26.1

0


 
Table 8: Percent total resistance for the top 15 Salmonella serotypes from animal species/sources (continued)


 
 
 

Antimicrobic


 
 

Derby

n=70


 
 

Worthing.

n=62

SEROTYPE
 
 

Menhaden

n=61


 
 

Meleagrid.

n=57


 
 

Hadar

n=56

Amikacin

0

0

0

0

0

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

0

3.2

1.6

0

1.8

Ampicillin

5.7

1.6

0

0

10.7

Apramycin

7.1

1.6

0

0

0

Ceftiofur

0

0

0

0

0

Ceftriaxone

0

0

0

0

0

Cephalothin

0

1.6

1.6

0

5.4

Chloramphenicol

4.3

0

0

0

0

Ciprofloxacin

0

0

0

0

0

Gentamicin

5.7

3.2

0

0

10.7

Kanamycin

10.0

0

0

0

16.1

Nalidixic Acid

0

0

0

0

1.8

Streptomycin

51.4

8.1

0

0

51.8

Sulfamethoxazole

48.6

4.8

0

0

12.5

Tetracycline

58.6

21.0

0

0

89.3

Ticarcillin

2.7

0

0

0

10.7

Trimethoprim/
Sulfamethoxazole

1.4

1.6

0

0

0


 

Table 9: Multiple antimicrobial resistance


 
 

Number of Antimicrobics Resistant to

No.

Isolates


 
 

Percent

0

1572

65.7

1

225

9.4

2

132

5.5

3

147

6.1

4

50

2.1

5

82

3.4

6

130

5.4

7

21

0.9

8

4

0.2

9

9

0.4

10

5

0.2

11

7

0.3

12

5

0.2

13

2

0.1


 

Table 10: Most frequent resistance patterns


 
 

Antimicrobics

No.

Isolates


 
 

Percent

Tet

177

7.4

Amp/Kan/Strep/Sulfa/Tet/Tic

79

3.3

Strep/Sulfa/Tet

36

1.5

Amp/Chlor/Strep/Sulfa/Tet/Tic

36

1.5

Strep/Tet

34

1.4

Amp/Chlor/Sulfa/Tet/Tic

30

1.3

Kan/Strep/Tet

27

1.1

Gen/Strep/Sulfa

25

1.0

Sulfa/Tet

24

1.0

Table11: Most frequent resistance patterns for 5 or more antimicrobics


 
 

Antimicrobics

No.

Isolates


 
 

Percent

Amp/Kan/Strep/Sulfa/Tet/Tic

79

3.3

Amp/Chlor/Strep/Sulfa/Tet/Tic

36

1.5

Amp/Chlor/Sulfa/Tet/Tic

30

1.3

Gen/Kan/Strep/Sulfa/Tet

14

0.5

Amp/Strep/Sulfa/Tet/Tic

8

0.3

Apra/Gen/Kan/Strep/Tet

8

0.3

Amp/Chlor/Kan/Strep/Sulfa/Tet/Tic

6

0.3

Amp/Gen/Strep/Sulfa/Tic

5

0.2

Amp/Kan/Strep/Sulfa/Tic

5

0.2

Amp/Kan/Strep/Tet/Tic

5

0.2

Amp/Kan/Strep/Sulfa/Tet/Tic/Trisulfa

4

0.2

Amp/Apr/Chlor/Gen/Kan/Strep/Sulfa/Tet/Tic

4

0.2


 

Table 12: Total S. typhimurium percent resistance with ACSSuT pattern


 
 

Serotype

No.

Isolates

No.

ACSSuT

Percent

ACSSuT

Percent of Total (n=2391) ACSSuT

S. typhimurium

157

26

16.6

1.1

S. typhimurium (cop)

171

32

18.7

1.3

Total

328

58

17.7

2.4

 


Last Modified: 1/12/2005