|2007 Veterinary Isolates Final Report- Accessible Version|
1 - Introduction, Materials and Methods and Data Analysis
2 - Antimicrobials and breakpoints
3 - Isolates tested- all organisms
4 - Salmonella (Tables 1 and 2)
5 - Salmonella (Tables 3 and 4)
6 - Salmonella (Table 5)
7 - Salmonella (Table 6)
8 - Salmonella (Table 7)
9 - Salmonella (Table 8)
10 - Salmonella (Tables 9-12)
11 - Salmonella (Tables 13-16)
12 - Campylobacter (All tables)
13 - E. coli (All tables)
In an effort to prospectively monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic pathogens from human diagnostic specimens, retail meats and food animals, the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) was established in 1996 by the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Veterinary Medicine in collaboration with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
The animal component of NARMS is housed within the Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance Research Unit (BEAR) of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in
This report summarizes 2007 data for Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus isolates from food-producing animals at slaughter (carcass rinsates, carcass swabs, and ground products) obtained through USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Pathogen Reduction: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) verification testing program. When suitable, resistance trends are also included; however, due to the amount of data and complexity of analyses involved, all permutations are not represented. Additional information on the animal component of NARMS including past annual reports, summary trend tables and graphs as well as a new component for interactive data analysis can be found on the NARMS Veterinary Isolates web page.
The 2004 NARMS Executive Report also contains additional background information on sampling and testing methodology as well as summary data from all three components of the program.
II. Sampling and Testing Methods
Salmonella isolates were recovered from food animals at slaughter: carcass rinsates (chicken), carcass swabs (turkey, cattle and swine), and ground products (chicken, turkey, and beef) collected through USDA-FSIS’s Salmonella PR/HACCP verification testing program from all federally inspected plants throughout the United States. Recovery of Campylobacter, E. coli, and Enterococcus was only attempted from chicken carcass rinsates. For this report, descriptions of isolates are confined by major animal species.
Salmonella isolation from slaughter samples was conducted at all three FSIS Regulatory Field Services Laboratories (Eastern, Midwestern and Western) following the Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, and Egg procedures as described in the Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, section 4.1 Positive isolates were forwarded by FSIS to the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) for serotyping and were subsequently sent to the BEAR unit as serotyping results became available.
From 1998 to 2000, Campylobacter was isolated by FSIS using the method described in the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook2. For the first half of 2001, ARS tested several isolation methods until a new method was adopted in July. Since that time, Campylobacter has been isolated by ARS from FSIS’ Eastern lab spent chicken carcass rinsates. ARS started isolating E.coli and Enterococcus from these same rinsates in 2000 and 2003, respectively. In 2003, all Enterococcus isolates obtained were tested for susceptibility. From 2004 to 2006, a subset of Enterococcus isolates were selected for susceptibility testing with a maximum of 1,500 isolates tested each year. A total of 375 isolates were selected for each yearly quarter by selecting isolates from samples which also tested positive for Salmonella, E.coli and Enterococcus. Additionally, all odd Enterococcus species found (avium, cecorum, malodoratus, and gilvus) were tested. Any remaining isolates to test were selected by selecting 30% E. faecalis, 30% E. faecium, 10% E. durans, 10% E. hirae, 10% E. casseliflavus, and 10% E. gallinarum. In 2007, all Enterococcus isolates obtained were tested for susceptibility.
Additionally, Enterococcus and Campylobacter speciation was also performed as described below.
C. Enterococcus Speciation
A species-specific multiplex PCR was performed on presumptive Enterococcus isolates which provided a simultaneous genus and species identification of 23 species of enterococci.3 Confirmed Enterococcus isolates of other species not identified with this procedure were labeled as ‘Enterococcus species’.
D. Campylobacter Speciation
Final confirmation and speciation were obtained using the Campylobacter BAX® PCR (DuPont Qualicon;
E. Antimicrobial Susceptibility
Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus were tested using a semi-automated system (Sensitire®, Trek Diagnostic Systems,
Quality control strains used for Salmonella and E.coli included E.coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560 was used for Campylobacter testing while four strains were used for testing Enterococcus: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299, E.coli ATCC 25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213.
NARMS Veterinary Isolates Contact
1 USDA/FSIS. 2004. Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products. Microbiological Lab Guidebook 4.03. Available at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/MLG_4_03.pdf
2 USDA/FSIS. 1998. Isolation, Identification, And Enumeration Of Campylobacter jejuni/coli From Meat And Poultry Products. Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, chapter 6. Available at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/ophs/Microlab/Mlgchp6.pdf
3 Jackson, C. 2004. Use of a Genus- and Species-Specific Multiplex PCR for Identification of Enterococci. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42(8):3558-65.
4 Englen, M.D. and Paula J. Fedorka-Cray. 2002. Evaluation of a Commercial Diagnostic PCR for the Identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Lett. Appl. Microbiol, 35:353-356.
5 NCCLS/CLSI. 2002. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals. Approved Standard, M31-A2. NCCLS,
6 CLSI. 2006. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Sixteenth Informational Supplement (M100-S16). CLSI,
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