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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

2007 Veterinary Isolates Final Report- Accessible Version
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1 - Introduction, Materials and Methods and Data Analysis
2 - Antimicrobials and breakpoints
3 - Isolates tested- all organisms
4 - Salmonella (Tables 1 and 2)
5 - Salmonella (Tables 3 and 4)
6 - Salmonella (Table 5)
7 - Salmonella (Table 6)
8 - Salmonella (Table 7)
9 - Salmonella (Table 8)
10 - Salmonella (Tables 9-12)
11 - Salmonella (Tables 13-16)
12 - Campylobacter (All tables)
13 - E. coli (All tables)
Campylobacter (All tables)
 
 
Table 1. Number of Campylobacter Species Tested from Chickens

 

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Jejuni

128

563

590

64

526

374

508

567

228

166

Coli

63

168

172

52

288

247

186

380

123

76

Other

3

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total

194

731

765

116

814

621

694

947

351

242

Table 1 notes: Differences in isolation methods are described in the section on methods

 

 

Table 2. Distribution of MICs and Occurrence of Resistance among Campylobacter Isolates from Chickens, 2007

Antimicrobial

Species    

%I  %R  95% CI Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/ml)
0.015 0.03 0.06 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

Gentamicin

C. coli

0

1.3

0.1-8.1

 

 

 

1.3

19.7

76.3

1.3

 

 

 

 

 

1.3

 

C. jejuni

0

0

0.0-2.8

 

 

 

4.2

37.3

58.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clindamycin

C. coli

3.9

9.2

4.1-18.6

 

 

3.9

22.4

57.9

1.3

 

1.3

3.9

9.2

 

 

 

 

C. jejuni

0

0

0.0-2.8

 

1.2

40.4

49.4

8.4

0.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Azithromycin

C. coli

0

14.5

7.8-24.9

 

13.2

50

22.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14.5

C. jejuni

0

0

0.0-2.8

11.4

51.8

33.1

3

 

0.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Erythromycin

C. coli

0

14.5

7.8-24.9

 

 

 

2.6

22.4

17.1

40.8

2.6

 

 

 

 

 

14.5

C. jejuni

0

0

0.0-2.8

 

 

1.2

13.9

48.8

30.7

5.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Telithromycin

C. coli

1.3

13.2

6.9-23.4

 

 

 

2.6

19.7

6.6

25

31.6

 

1.3

13.2

 

 

 

C. jejuni

0

0

0.0-2.8

 

 

 

2.4

17.5

48.2

28.9

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Florfenicol

C. coli

0

0

0.0-6.0

 

 

 

 

 

6.6

86.8

6.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

C. jejuni

0

0

0.0-2.8

 

 

 

0.6

0.6

35.5

57.8

5.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ciprofloxacin

C. coli

0

15.8

8.8-26.4

 

 

22.4

42.1

19.7

 

 

 

1.3

7.9

6.6

 

 

 

C. jejuni

0

21.7

15.8-28.9

 

0.6

48.8

24.1

3.6

0.6

0.6

 

1.8

14.5

5.4

 

 

 

Nalidixic Acid

C. coli

0

15.8

8.8-26.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75

9.2

 

 

5.3

10.5

C. jejuni

0.6

21.7

15.8-28.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

68.1

9

0.6

0.6

5.4

16.3

Tetracycline

C. coli

0

42.1

31.0-54.0

 

 

 

13.2

39.5

5.3

 

 

 

 

 

1.3

6.6

34.2

C. jejuni

0.6

56.6

48.7-64.2

 

 

4.2

24.7

7.8

4.2

1.2

0.6

 

0.6

4.8

12.7

19.3

19.9

Table 2 notes:

95% confidence intervals for percent resistant (%R) were calculated using the Clopper-Pearson exact method

Antimicrobial subclasses and susceptible, intermediate and resistance breakpoints can be found in the antimicrobials and breakpoints section. 

There are CLSI breakpoints only for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline

 

 
Table 3. Percent Antimicrobial Resistance among Campylobacter Isolates from Chickens by Year, 1998-2007
Antimicrobial Species  

1998

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Gentamicin C. coli

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.3

0

1.3

C. jejuni

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Clindamycin C. coli

20.6

12.5

12.8

3.8

8.3

8.9

4.8

2.4

1.6

9.2

C. jejuni

3.9

0.5

0.2

0

0.8

1.1

0.8

0.4

0

0

Azithromycin C. coli

25.4

14.9

22.7

11.5

19.4

20.2

9.1

8.4

8.9

14.5

C. jejuni

3.1

0.4

0.7

3.1

1

1.3

1.6

1.4

0.4

0

Erythromycin C. coli

23.8

14.9

22.7

11.5

18.8

20.2

9.1

8.4

8.9

14.5

C. jejuni

3.1

0.2

0.5

3.1

0.6

1.6

1.6

1.1

0.4

0

Telithromycin C. coli

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

5.5

6.5

13.2

C. jejuni

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

0

0

0

Chloramphenicol C. coli

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

NT

NT

NT

C. jejuni

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

NT

NT

NT

Florfenicol C. coli

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

0

0

0

C. jejuni

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

NT

0

0

0

Ciprofloxacin C. coli

20.6

13.7

14.5

19.2

16

20.2

26.3

22.1

15.4

15.8

C. jejuni

9.4

9.6

10.5

20.3

18.6

14.7

21.3

15

8.8

21.7

Nalidixic acid C. coli

31.7

17.3

16.3

21.2

18.1

21.9

28

22.1

15.4

15.8

C. jejuni

14.8

11.9

12.2

20.3

22.8

15.5

21.7

15.3

8.8

21.7

Tetracycline C. coli

61.9

57.7

57.6

57.7

49

51

48.4

42.1

53.7

42.1

C. jejuni

58.6

53.3

52.9

34.4

44.7

47.1

41.1

44.1

56.1

56.6

Table 3 notes:

From 1998 through 2004, the Etest method was used for susceptibility testing while in 2005 testing was conducted using micro-broth dilution. For breakpoints, please refer to Table 2 in the sampling and testing methods section. Etest MICs were not rounded up prior to categorization.

From 1998 through 2000, nalidixic acid susceptibility and cephalothin resistance were used as selection criteria for Campylobacter identification

2001 isolates were recovered from July through December, 2001, when the new ARS isolation method was used

One isolate originally found to be chloramphenicol resistant was not reproducible upon further testing

NT: Not tested

 

Table 4. Percent Frequency of Resistance Patterns of Campylobacter coli Isolates, by Year, 1998-2007
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
No Resistance detected

19

33.3

27.9

30.8

37.5

32.8

37.1

47.6

39

43.4

Resistance >1 CLSI subclass

81

66.7

72.1

69.2

62.5

67.2

62.9

52.4

61

56.6

Resistance >2 CLSI subclasses

47.6

26.2

29.7

26.9

27.4

32.4

32.3

29.2

22.8

26.3

Resistance >3 CLSI subclasess

30.2

17.3

18.6

15.4

13.9

18.6

18.3

17.9

16.3

18.4

Resistance >4 CLSI subclasses

1.6

4.8

3.5

1.9

4.9

3.6

2.7

2.6

1.6

5.3

Resistance >5 CLSI subclasses

0

1.8

0

0

2.1

0.4

0.5

0.3

0

3.9

 

Table 5. Percent Frequency of Resistance Patterns of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates, by Year, 1998-2007
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

No Resistance detected

38.3

42.6

42.2

53.1

44.9

45.5

48.2

46.9

39.9

34.3

Resistance >1 CLSI subclass

61.7

57.4

57.8

46.9

55.1

54.5

51.8

53.1

60.1

65.7

Resistance >2 CLSI subclasses

14.8

11.5

11.9

21.9

21.3

16

22

16

8.8

21.7

Resistance >3 CLSI subclasess

9.4

6.9

6.6

9.4

11.4

8.8

12.2

6.2

5.3

12.7

Resistance >4 CLSI subclasses

2.3

0

0.2

0

0

0

0.4

0.2

0

0

Resistance >5 CLSI subclasses

1.6

0

0

0

0

0.3

0

0

0

0

Table 4 and 5 notes:

CLSI: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100 Document

 

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