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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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2007 Veterinary Isolates Final Report- Accessible Version
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Introduction, Materials and Methods and Data Analysis

 

 

                                                                                                             November 2008

 

I. Introduction

 


    In an effort to prospectively monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance of zoonotic pathogens from human diagnostic specimens, retail meats and food animals, the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) was established in 1996 by the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Veterinary Medicine in collaboration with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).

 

    The animal component of NARMS is housed within the Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance Research Unit (BEAR) of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Athens, Georgia. The animal component of NARMS comprises the testing of isolates obtained from diagnostic animal specimens, healthy on-farm animals, and food-producing animals at slaughter. The panel of antimicrobial agents chosen is representative of common antimicrobials used in both human and veterinary medicine. Non-typhoid Salmonella was chosen as a sentinel organism of the animal component of NARMS which was launched in 1997.   Testing of Campylobacter isolates began in 1998 while Escherichia coli was included in 2000. In 2004, Enterococcus data was added.

 

    This report summarizes 2007 data for Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus isolates from food-producing animals at slaughter (carcass rinsates, carcass swabs, and ground products) obtained through USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Pathogen Reduction: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (PR/HACCP) verification testing program. When suitable, resistance trends are also included; however, due to the amount of data and complexity of analyses involved, all permutations are not represented.  Additional information on the animal component of NARMS including past annual reports, summary trend tables and graphs as well as a new component for interactive data analysis can be found on the NARMS Veterinary Isolates web page.

 

    The 2004 NARMS Executive Report also contains additional background information on sampling and testing methodology as well as summary data from all three components of the program.

 

 

II. Sampling and Testing Methods

 


A. Samples

 

    Salmonella isolates were recovered from food animals at slaughter: carcass rinsates (chicken), carcass swabs (turkey, cattle and swine), and ground products (chicken, turkey, and beef) collected through USDA-FSIS’s Salmonella PR/HACCP verification testing program from all federally inspected plants throughout the United States. Recovery of Campylobacter, E. coli, and Enterococcus was only attempted from chicken carcass rinsates. For this report, descriptions of isolates are confined by major animal species.

 

B. Isolation

 

    Salmonella isolation from slaughter samples was conducted at all three FSIS Regulatory Field Services Laboratories (Eastern, Midwestern and Western) following the Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, and Egg procedures as described in the Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, section 4.1  Positive isolates were forwarded by FSIS to the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) for serotyping and were subsequently sent to the BEAR unit as serotyping results became available.  

 

 

     From 1998 to 2000, Campylobacter was isolated by FSIS using the method described in the FSIS Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook2. For the first half of 2001, ARS tested several isolation methods until a new method was adopted in July.  Since that time, Campylobacter has been isolated by ARS from FSIS’ Eastern lab spent chicken carcass rinsates. ARS started isolating E.coli and Enterococcus from these same rinsates in 2000 and 2003, respectively. In 2003, all Enterococcus isolates obtained were tested for susceptibility. From 2004 to 2006, a subset of Enterococcus isolates were selected for susceptibility testing with a maximum of 1,500 isolates tested each year. A total of 375 isolates were selected for each yearly quarter by selecting isolates from samples which also tested positive for Salmonella, E.coli and Enterococcus.  Additionally, all odd Enterococcus species found (avium, cecorum, malodoratus, and gilvus) were tested.  Any remaining isolates to test were selected by selecting 30% E. faecalis, 30% E. faecium, 10% E. durans, 10% E. hirae, 10% E. casseliflavus, and 10% E. gallinarum.  In 2007, all Enterococcus isolates obtained were tested for susceptibility.

 

     Additionally, Enterococcus and Campylobacter speciation was also performed as described below.

 

C. Enterococcus Speciation

 

    A species-specific multiplex PCR was performed on presumptive Enterococcus isolates which provided a simultaneous genus and species identification of 23 species of enterococci.3 Confirmed Enterococcus isolates of other species not identified with this procedure were labeled as ‘Enterococcus species’.

 

D. Campylobacter Speciation

 

 

     Final confirmation and speciation were obtained using the Campylobacter BAX® PCR (DuPont Qualicon; Wilmington, DE).  This multiplex assay, specific for C. coli and C. jejuni, was performed according to manufacturer’s directions as previously described4.

 

 

E. Antimicrobial Susceptibility

 

     Salmonella, Campylobacter, E.coli, and Enterococcus were tested using a semi-automated system (Sensitire®, Trek Diagnostic Systems, Westlake, Ohio) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Tables 1, 2 and 3 list antimicrobials tested and their breakpoints for Salmonella/E.coli, Campylobacter, and Enterococcus respectively.   Resistance trends for Campylobacter include data from 1998-2004 which was obtained using Etest® (AB Biodisk).  Antimicrobial resistance was determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, formerly NCCLS) standards, when available.5,6 For antimicrobial agents without CLSI approved standards, NARMS interpretive criteria as established by the NARMS working group were used.

 

     Quality control strains used for Salmonella and E.coli included E.coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560 was used for Campylobacter testing while four strains were used for testing Enterococcus: Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299, E.coli ATCC 25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213.

 

 

F. Phage Typing 

 

     Salmonella Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium var. 5- isolates with resistance to at least ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline were submitted to NVSL for phagetyping.

 

 

III. Data Analysis

 


     WHONET 5, a Microbiology Laboratory Database Software was used to categorize minimum inhibitory concentrations as resistant, intermediate susceptibility (when applicable), and susceptible according to CLSI established interpretive criteria (where available).  Duplicate isolates (same pathogen, sample, and species/serotype) were excluded from data analysis.  The 95% confidence interval was calculated following the Wilson interval with Continuity Correction method.  MIC distributions as well as resistance and intermediate susceptibility (when applicable) rates were tabulated by pathogen and food animal source.  For Salmonella, MIC distributions were also tabulated for the top serotypes tested for each animal source.  For Campylobacter, MIC distributions were tabulated separately for C. coli and C. jejuni.  Additionally, historical resistance rates by food animal source and organism are presented from 1997 through 2007 for Salmonella and from 2000 through 2007 for E.coli.  Resistance rates for Campylobacter are reported from 1998 through 2007 and are separated by species.   The frequency of S. typhimurium showing a resistance pattern to at least ACSSuT (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline) or ACSuT (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline) as well as phage type distributions are reported separately for S. typhimurium and S. typhimurium var. 5- isolates.  The frequency and percentage of confirmed DT104 isolates is reported separately by food animal source from 1997 through 2007. Multiple antimicrobial resistance tabulations for all pathogens were limited to only those antimicrobials tested for all years (core antimicrobials).  The 14 core antimicrobials for Salmonella and E.coli were amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, sulfonamides (sulfamthoxazole/sulfisoxazole), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline.   The 7 core antimicrobials for Campylobacter were gentamicin, clindamycin, azithromycin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mention of trade names or commercial products is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

 

 

NARMS Veterinary Isolates Contact

 

Dr. Paula Fedorka-Cray

Research Leader, Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance

Research Unit

950 College Station Rd.

Athens, GA 30605

Email: Paula.cray@ars.usda.gov

 

                          

IV. References

 

1 USDA/FSIS. 2004. Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products. Microbiological Lab Guidebook 4.03. Available at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/MLG_4_03.pdf

 

2 USDA/FSIS.  1998.  Isolation, Identification, And Enumeration Of Campylobacter jejuni/coli From Meat And Poultry Products.  Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, chapter 6.  Available at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/ophs/Microlab/Mlgchp6.pdf

 

3 Jackson, C. 2004. Use of a Genus- and Species-Specific Multiplex PCR for Identification of Enterococci. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42(8):3558-65.

 

4 Englen, M.D. and Paula J. Fedorka-Cray.  2002.  Evaluation of a Commercial Diagnostic PCR for the Identification of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli.  Lett. Appl. Microbiol, 35:353-356.

 

5 NCCLS/CLSI. 2002. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk and Dilution Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria Isolated from Animals.  Approved Standard, M31-A2. NCCLS, Wayne, PA.

 

6 CLSI. 2006. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Sixteenth Informational Supplement (M100-S16). CLSI, Wayne, PA.

 

 

 


Antimicrobials and breakpoints

 

 

Table 1. Breakpoints (µg/ml) Used for Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella and E.coli
CLSI Subclass Antimicrobial Susceptible breakpoint Intermediate breakpoint Resistant breakpoint
Aminoglycosides Amikacin

<=16

32

>=64

Gentamicin

<=4

8

>=16

Kanamycin

<=16

32

>=64

Streptomycin

<=32

N/A

>=64

Aminopenicillins Ampicillin

<=8

16

>=32

Beta-Lactam/Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor Combinations Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

<=8/4

16/8

>=32/16

Cephalosporins I Cephalothin

<=8

16

>=32

Cephalosporins III Ceftiofur

<=2

4

>=8

Ceftriaxone

<=8

16 and 32

>=64

Cephamycins Cefoxitin

<=8

16

>=32

Folate Pathway Inhibitors Sulfanomides

<=256

N/A

>=512

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole

<=2/38

N/A

>=4/76

Phenicols Chloramphenicol

<=8

16

>=32

Fluoroquinolones Ciprofloxacin

<=1

2

>=4

Quinolones Nalidixic Acid

<=16

N/A

>=32

Tetracyclines Tetracycline

<=4

8

>=16

Table 1 notes:

Breakpoints established by CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) were used when available

CLSI subclasses are in accordance with CLSI M100 document.

No CLSI breakpoints are available for streptomycin

N/A - Not applicable

 

Table 2. Breakpoints (µg/ml) Used for Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter
CLSI Subclass Antimicrobial Broth Microdilution Breakpoints (2005-2007) Etest Breakpoints (1998-2004)
Susceptible Intermediate Resistant Susceptible Intermediate Resistant
Aminoglycosides Gentamicin

<=2

4

>=8

<=4

8

>=16

Lincosamides Clindamycin

<=2

4

>=8

<=0.5

1 and 2

>=4

Macrolides Azithromycin

<=2

4

>=8

<=0.25

0.5 and 1

>=2

Erythromycin

<=8

16

>=32

<=0.5

1 and 4

>=8

Ketolides Telithromycin

<=4

8

>=16

NT

NT

NT

Phenicols Florfenicol

<=4

N/A

N/A

NT

NT

NT

Chloramphenicol

NT

NT

NT

><=8

16

>=32

Fluoroquinolones Ciprofloxacin

<=1

2

>=4

<=1

2

>=4

Quinolones Nalidixic acid

<=16

32

>=64

<=16

N/A

>=32

Tetracyclines Tetracycline

<=4

8

>=16

<=4

8

>=16

 

Table 2 notes:

Breakpoints established by CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) were used when available. CLSI breakpoints are available only for erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline

CLSI subclasses are in accordance with CLSI M100 document.

N/A - Not applicable

NT - Not tested

 

 

 

 


Isolates tested- all organisms

 

Table 1. Total Number of Isolates Tested by Organism and Source in 2007

 

Salmonella Campylobacter E.coli

Chickens

994

242

1510

Turkeys

271

N/A

N/A

Cattle

439

N/A

N/A

Swine

211

N/A

N/A

Table 1 notes:

N/A - Not applicable


Salmonella (Tables 1 and 2)
 
 
Table 1. Total Number of Salmonella Isolates Tested from Food Animals, 1997-2007

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Chickens

214

561

1438

1173

1307

1500

1158

1280

1989

1380

994

Turkeys

107

240

713

518

550

244

262

236

227

304

271

Cattle

24

284

1610

1388

893

1008

670

607

329

389

439

Swine

111

793

876

451

418

379

211

308

301

304

211

 

 

Table 2. Most Common Serotypes Among Salmonella Isolates from Food Animals, 2007 Chickens

Serotype

Number Percent
Kentucky

443

44.6

Heidelberg

142

14.3

Enteritidis

124

12.5

Typhimurium var. 5-

50

5.0

4,[5],12:i:-

49

4.9

Typhimurium

33

3.3

Montevideo

20

2.0

Infantis

16

1.6

Berta

13

1.3

Mbandaka

11

1.1

Schwarzengrund

11

1.1

Subtotal

912

91.8

Others

82

8.2

Total

994

100

 

Table 2. Most Common Serotypes Among Salmonella Isolates from Food Animals, 2007 Turkeys

Serotype

Number Percent
Hadar

118

43.5

Saintpaul

29

10.7

Heidelberg

23

8.5

Newport

15

5.5

Agona

14

5.2

Senftenberg

9

3.3

Reading

8

3.0

Schwarzengrund

5

1.8

Typhimurium

4

1.5

Berta

4

1.5

Muenchen

4

1.5

Montevideo

3

1.1

Mbandaka

3

1.1

Minnesota

3

1.1

Worthington

3

1.1

Subtotal

245

90.4

Others

26

9.6

Total

271

100

 

Table 2. Most Common Serotypes Among Salmonella Isolates from Food Animals, 2007 Cattle

Serotype

Number Percent

Montevideo

95

21.6

Dublin

40

9.1

Muenster

33

7.5

Newport

30

6.8

Mbandaka

27

6.2

Cerro

24

5.5

Anatum

23

5.2

Agona

17

3.9

Meleagridis

17

3.9

Typhimurium

14

3.2

Infantis

13

3.0

Subtotal

333

75.9

Others

106

24.1

Total

439

100

 

Table 2. Most Common Serotypes Among Salmonella Isolates from Food Animals, 2007 Swine

Serotype Number Percent
Derby

29

13.7

Typhimurium var. 5-

26

12.3

Johannesburg

22

10.4

Typhimurium

18

8.5

Infantis

17

8.1

Saintpaul

12

5.7

London

10

4.7

Anatum

10

4.7

Adelaide

10

4.7

Hadar

9

4.3

Agona

8

3.8

Muenchen

4

1.9

Subtotal

175

82.9

Others

36

11.8

Total

211

95


Salmonella (Tables 3 and 4)

 

Table 3. Distribution of MICs and Occurrence of Resistance by Animal Source among all Salmonella Isolates from Food Animals, 2007

Antimicrobial

Animal Source

%I %R 95% CI Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/ml)
<=0.015 0.03 0.06 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024
Amikacin Chickens

0

0

0.0-0.5

 

 

 

 

 

35.5

57.5

6.4

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

0

0

0.0-1.7

 

 

 

 

 

18.1

67.9

12.5

1.1

0.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cattle

0

0

0.0-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

12.3

60.8

25.3

1.4

0.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Swine

0

0.5

0-3.1

 

 

 

 

 

13.3

71.6

11.8

2.8

0

0

0

0

0.5

 

 

 

Gentamicin Chickens

0.6

4.5

3.3-6.0

 

 

 

 

83.7

10

0.8

0

0.4

0.6

2.9

1.6

 

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

4.1

12.9

9.3-17.6

 

 

 

 

66.4

14.8

1.1

0.4

0.4

4.1

7

5.9

 

 

 

 

 

Cattle

0

1.6

0.7-3.4

 

 

 

 

63.8

33.3

1.4

0

0

0

0.7

0.9

 

 

 

 

 

Swine

0.5

0.9

0.1-3.7

 

 

 

 

77.7

20.9

0

0

0

0.5

0.5

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

Kanamycin Chickens

0

3.4

2.4-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

96.1

0.5

0

0.2

3.2

 

 

 

Turkeys

1.1

16.2

12.1-21.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

82.3

0.4

1.1

1.1

15.1

 

 

 

Cattle

0

7.7

5.5-10.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

91.8

0.5

0

0.5

7.3

 

 

 

Swine

0

7.1

4.2-11.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

92.9

0

0

0

7.1

 

 

 

Streptomycin Chickens

N/A

19.3

16.9-21.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

80.7

16.7

2.6

 

 

 

Turkeys

N/A

34.7

29.1-40.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

65.3

22.1

12.5

 

 

 

Cattle

N/A

19.8

16.2-23.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

80.2

2.5

17.3

 

 

 

Swine

N/A

27

21.2-33.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

73

18

9

 

 

 

Ampicillin Chickens

0

17

14.7-19.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

80.4

2.3

0.2

0.1

0

0.1

16.8

0.1

 

 

 

Turkeys

0

36.9

31.2-43.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

60.9

2.2

0

0

0

0

36.9

 

 

 

 

Cattle

0

20

16.4-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

77

2.7

0.2

0

0

0

20

 

 

 

 

Swine

0

18

13.2-24.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

75.4

5.7

0.5

0.5

0

0.5

17.5

 

 

 

 

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid Chickens

0.2

15.6

13.4-18.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

82.2

0.7

0.2

1.1

0.2

1.5

14.1

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

17.3

11.1

7.7-15.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

60.5

2.6

0.4

8.1

17.3

2.6

8.5

 

 

 

 

Cattle

1.6

15.5

12.3-19.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

76.5

2.7

1.4

2.3

1.6

3.2

12.3

 

 

 

 

Swine

11.4

3.3

1.5-7.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

80.6

0.9

0

3.8

11.4

0.9

2.4

 

 

 

 

Ceftiofur Chickens

0.4

15.4

13.2-17.8

 

 

 

0.2

4

54.5

25.4

0.1

0.4

2.6

12.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

0

11.1

7.7-15.6

 

 

 

 

0.7

43.9

43.5

0.7

0

1.5

9.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cattle

0.9

15.5

12.3-19.3

 

 

 

0.2

1.8

39.6

41

0.9

0.9

2.1

13.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Swine

0.9

2.8

1.1-6.3

 

 

 

 

 

40.3

55

0.9

0.9

0.5

2.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ceftriaxone Chickens

10

0.4

0.1-1.1

 

 

 

 

84.2

0.2

0

0

0.5

4.7

8

1.9

0.4

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

8.1

0

0.0-1.7

 

 

 

 

88.6

0.4

0

0

0

3

5.5

2.6

 

 

 

 

 

Cattle

13.4

0.7

0.2-2.2

 

 

 

 

82.9

0.7

0.2

0.2

0.5

1.4

8.9

4.6

0.7

 

 

 

 

Swine

1.9

0.5

0-3.1

 

 

 

 

96.7

0

0

0.9

0

0

1.9

0

0.5

 

 

 

 

Cefoxitin Chickens

2.3

13

11.0-15.3

 

 

 

 

 

0.2

12.3

45.5

22.2

4.5

2.3

9.8

3.2

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

3

9.2

6.2-13.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

49.8

25.1

5.9

3

4.4

4.8

 

 

 

 

Cattle

1.4

15

11.9-18.8

 

 

 

 

 

0.2

6.6

34.2

33.3

9.3

1.4

3.9

11.2

 

 

 

 

Swine

0

2.8

1.1-6.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.8

40.3

44.1

10

0

1.9

0.9

 

 

 

 

Sulfonamides Chickens

N/A

10.4

8.6-12.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38.8

45.7

4.9

0.1

0.1

10.4

 

Turkeys

N/A

25.5

20.5-31.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17

46.9

9.6

0.7

0.4

25.5

 

Cattle

N/A

21.6

17.9-25.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25.1

42.6

10.5

0.2

0

21.6

 

Swine

N/A

30.8

24.7-37.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35.1

27

6.6

0

0.5

30.8

 

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Chickens

N/A

0

0.0-0.5

 

 

 

88

10

1.8

0.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

N/A

1.1

0.3-3.5

 

 

 

77.9

17.7

1.1

1.1

1.1

0

1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cattle

N/A

3

1.7-5.2

 

 

 

73.1

18.7

4.1

0.9

0.2

0.7

2.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Swine

N/A

1.9

0.6-5.1

 

 

 

69.7

23.2

3.3

1.9

0

0

1.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chloramphenicol Chickens

0.4

1.8

1.1-2.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.1

58

34.6

0.4

0.1

1.7

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

1.8

5.5

3.2-9.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

49.4

42.1

1.8

0

5.5

 

 

 

 

Cattle

0.9

20

16.4-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.7

28.7

49.7

0.9

0

20

 

 

 

 

Swine

2.4

15.2

10.8-20.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4

20.4

60.7

2.4

0

15.2

 

 

 

 

Ciprofloxacin Chickens

0

0

0.0-0.5

79.6

18.3

2

0.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

0

0

0.0-1.7

74.5

21.8

2.6

0

0.7

0.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cattle

0

0

0.0-1.1

79

18.7

1.6

0.2

0

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Swine

0

0

0.0-2.2

81.5

17.5

0.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nalidixic Acid Chickens

N/A

0.1

0-0.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4

43.7

42.9

11.7

0.3

0

0.1

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

N/A

1.1

0.3-3.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38.7

39.5

20.3

0.4

0

1.1

 

 

 

 

Cattle

N/A

0.7

0.2-2.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.5

43.1

44

11.8

0

0.2

0.5

 

 

 

 

Swine

N/A

0

0.0-2.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.9

37.4

49.3

11.8

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tetracycline Chickens

1.4

35.5

32.5-38.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

63.1

1.4

0.6

1.7

33.2

 

 

 

 

Turkeys

0.4

73.8

68.1-78.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25.8

0.4

0.4

13.3

60.1

 

 

 

 

Cattle

0.7

27.3

23.2-31.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72

0.7

1.1

3.6

22.6

 

 

 

 

Swine

0.5

54.5

47.5-61.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45

0.5

1.9

12.3

40.3

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3 notes:

95% confidence intervals for percent resistant (%R) were calculated using the Clopper-Pearson exact method

Antimicrobial subclasses and susceptible, intermediate and resistance breakpoints can be found in the antimicrobials and breakpoints section. 

N/A- Not applicable 

 

Table 4. Percent Antimicrobial Resistance among all Salmonella Isolates from Food Animals by Year, 1997-2007
Antimicrobial

Animal Source

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Amikacin Chickens

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Turkeys

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Cattle

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Swine

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.3

Gentamicin Chickens

17.8

15.3

10.4

14.9

7.9

5.5

6.3

4.9

4.3

5.7

4.5

Turkeys

20.6

18.3

17.5

16.2

20.9

19.3

21

25.4

22.9

16.4

12.9

Cattle

0

1.8

1.6

2.1

2.1

2.6

2.7

1.8

2.4

3.9

1.6

Swine

0.9

0.8

1.1

1.3

1.4

0.8

0.5

1.3

2.7

2

0.9

Kanamycin Chickens

2.3

3.2

1.2

4.1

2.4

2

2.8

2.7

2.5

3.6

3.4

Turkeys

24.3

17.1

21.5

21.4

22.9

24.2

16

14.4

19.8

10.5

16.2

Cattle

8.3

9.5

7.1

6.6

6.9

10.1

13.7

8.9

13.1

9.5

7.7

Swine

11.7

7.2

6.7

9.3

6.9

4.2

5.7

3.9

5

8.6

7.1

Streptomycin Chickens

24.3

27.8

27.5

28.6

21

22.9

19.6

22.2

23.3

21.2

19.3

Turkeys

34.6

40.8

43.6

41.9

46.7

37.7

29.4

33.9

40.1

28.9

34.7

Cattle

12.5

16.2

15.4

21.3

20.3

25.9

28.7

20.9

24.3

23.7

19.8

Swine

27.9

29.4

29.3

39.2

35.6

40.1

30.8

36.4

36.5

26.3

27

Ampicillin Chickens

11.7

12.8

12.4

13

9.4

14.3

13.7

14.5

14

14.9

17

Turkeys

12.1

10.4

17.7

16.2

19.5

18

18.7

22

22.9

25.3

36.9

Cattle

12.5

9.2

12.5

18.7

17.9

23.9

28.1

19.3

26.7

22.4

20

Swine

16.2

12.9

10.8

18.8

11.7

13.7

12.8

16.2

13.6

11.5

18

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid Chickens

0.5

2

4.9

7.3

4.5

10.2

9.7

12.4

12.1

12.9

15.6

Turkeys

4.7

0.4

4.3

3.5

6.9

3.7

1.5

4.7

3.5

5.6

11.1

Cattle

8.3

2.5

3.9

9.9

11.8

17.7

21

13.5

21

18.5

15.5

Swine

0

0.4

1

1.8

2.6

3.7

3.8

1.9

4.3

2.3

3.3

Ceftiofur Chickens

0.5

2

5.2

7.6

4.1

10.2

9.8

12.4

12.2

12.8

15.4

Turkeys

3.7

0.4

4.6

3.3

5.1

3.3

1.5

4.7

3.5

5.3

11.1

Cattle

0

2.1

4.2

9.8

11.4

17.4

21

13.3

21.6

18.8

15.5

Swine

0

0.1

1.9

1.3

2.2

3.2

4.3

1.9

3.7

2

2.8

Ceftriaxone Chickens

0

0

0

0.1

0

0.3

0.1

0.5

0.3

0.1

0.4

Turkeys

0

0

0.8

0.4

0.2

0

0.4

0.4

0.9

0

0

Cattle

0

0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

1.3

2.1

1

0.7

Swine

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.5

Cephalothin Chickens

1.4

4.5

5.8

7.8

4.7

10.5

10.4

10.4

NT

NT

NT

Turkeys

5.6

5

10.5

8.3

13.1

9.8

11.1

11.1

NT

NT

NT

Cattle

0

2.1

4.7

9.9

11.6

17.7

21.2

21.2

NT

NT

NT

Swine

0

0.1

0.8

2.4

2.2

3.2

3.8

3.8

NT

NT

NT

Cefoxitin Chickens

NT

NT

NT

7.2

4.1

8.7

8.2

12.4

12

12.8

13

Turkeys

NT

NT

NT

3.3

4.5

2.5

1.1

5.1

3.5

5.3

9.2

Cattle

NT

NT

NT

9.1

11.1

15.9

17.8

13.2

19.8

17.7

15

Swine

NT

NT

NT

1.3

2.2

2.9

4.3

1.9

3.7

2

2.8

Sulfonamides Chickens

24.8

23.7

15.9

18.4

11.8

8.9

10.3

11.9

8.5

10.7

10.4

Turkeys

37.4

32.1

36

25.1

38

30.3

28.2

36.4

37

27.3

25.5

Cattle

20.8

15.5

15

19.9

19.7

22.3

25.1

22.7

27.4

24.2

21.6

Swine

34.2

29

30.7

35.7

34.9

34.6

25.1

37

32.9

26.6

30.8

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Chickens

0.5

1.2

1.1

0.4

0.5

0.8

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0

Turkeys

3.7

2.5

4.2

1.5

2.5

2.5

2.3

0.8

1.8

1

1.1

Cattle

4.2

2.5

2.4

2.2

2.6

2.5

3.3

1.5

4.9

4.6

3

Swine

1.8

0.3

1.1

0.9

0

1.6

2.4

1.6

2.3

2

1.9

Chloramphenicol Chickens

2.3

2.9

1.8

4.6

2.5

2.4

2.1

1.3

1.8

1.7

1.8

Turkeys

3.7

0.8

4.1

4.1

3.8

5.3

4.2

4.7

4.8

3.9

5.5

Cattle

4.2

5.6

8.5

15.1

16.5

20.6

25.1

17.6

21.9

19.8

20

Swine

11.7

8.4

8

12.4

7.7

10

8.5

12.7

10.6

7.9

15.2

Ciprofloxacin Chickens

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.1

0

0

0

0

Turkeys

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Cattle

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Swine

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Nalidixic Acid Chickens

0

0.2

0.2

0.5

0

0.8

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.1

0.1

Turkeys

4.7

2.1

5.3

5.4

5.1

5.3

3.8

2.1

2.2

0.7

1.1

Cattle

0

0.4

0.1

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.4

2

1.5

0.5

0.7

Swine

0

0

0

0.2

0

0.3

0

0

0.3

0

0

Tetracycline Chickens

20.6

20.5

25

26.3

21.9

24.9

26.2

27.4

28.3

31.8

35.5

Turkeys

52.3

45.8

52.9

56.2

54.9

54.5

58.8

48.3

54.6

61.8

73.8

Cattle

25

24.3

20.9

25.8

26.3

32

36.9

31.8

34

30.3

27.3

Swine

52.3

47.5

48.4

54.3

53.1

57.8

43.1

58.8

54.8

62.8

54.5

Table 4 notes:

NT- Not tested 

 


Salmonella (Table 5)

 

 

Table 5. Distribution of MICs and Occurrence of Resistance by Top Serotypes Tested from Chickens, 2007

Antimicrobial

Serotype %I %R 95% CI Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/ml)
0.015 0.03 0.06 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024

Amikacin

Kentucky

0

0

0.0-1.1

 

 

 

 

 

36.1

58

5.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

0

0.0-3.3

 

 

 

 

 

43

47.9

8.5

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

 

 

39.5

55.6

4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

0

0

0.0-8.9

 

 

 

 

 

62

36

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

0

0

0.0-9.1

 

 

 

 

 

16.3

73.5

10.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

 

 

42.4

48.5

9.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

90

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

43.8

50

6.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

30.8

61.5

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

18.2

81.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gentamicin Kentucky

0.2

3.4

2.0-5.7

 

 

 

 

85.8

9.3

0.9

 

0.5

0.2

2.5

0.9

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

2.8

11.3

6.8-18.0

 

 

 

 

73.9

12

 

 

 

2.8

7.7

3.5

 

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

 

95.2

4

 

 

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

0

2

0.1-12.0

 

 

 

 

92

6

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

0

0

0.0-9.1

 

 

 

 

87.8

12.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

6.1

1.1-21.7

 

 

 

 

87.9

6.1

 

 

 

 

6.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

20

6.6-44.3

 

 

 

 

50

30

 

 

 

 

5

15

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

87.5

6.2

6.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

92.3

 

 

 

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

9.1

0.5-42.9

 

 

 

 

63.6

27.3

 

 

 

 

 

9.1

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

9.1

0.5-42.9

 

 

 

 

63.6

18.2

9.1

 

 

 

 

9.1

 

 

 

 

 

Kanamycin Kentucky

0

2

1.0-3.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

97.7

0.2

 

 

2

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

6.3

3.1-12.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

93

0.7

 

1.4

4.9

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

99.2

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

0

10

3.7-22.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

0

4.1

0.7-15.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

95.9

 

 

 

4.1

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

3

0.2-17.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.9

3

 

 

3

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

10

1.8-33.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

85

5

 

 

10

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

9.1

0.5-42.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90.9

 

 

 

9.1

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

9.1

0.5-42.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90.9

 

 

 

9.1

 

 

 

Streptomycin Kentucky

N/A

32.5

28.2-37.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

67.5

29.8

2.7

 

 

 

Heidelberg

N/A

13.4

8.5-20.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

86.6

7

6.3

 

 

 

Enteritidis

N/A

0.8

0-5.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

99.2

0.8

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

N/A

10

3.7-22.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90

8

2

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

N/A

8.2

2.7-20.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

91.8

6.1

2

 

 

 

Typhimurium

N/A

12.1

3.9-29.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

87.9

12.1

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

N/A

10

1.8-33.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90

5

5

 

 

 

Infantis

N/A

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

N/A

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

N/A

9.1

0.5-42.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90.9

9.1

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

N/A

9.1

0.5-42.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90.9

9.1

 

 

 

 

Ampicillin Kentucky

0

20.1

16.5-24.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

77.9

1.6

0.2

0.2

 

0.2

19.9

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

20.4

14.3-28.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

78.2

1.4

 

 

 

 

19.7

0.7

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0

1.6

0.3-6.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.5

4

0.8

 

 

 

1.6

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

0

50

35.7-64.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

0

20.4

10.7-34.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

77.6

2

 

 

 

 

20.4

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

18.2

7.6-36.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

72.7

9.1

 

 

 

 

18.2

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

95

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

7.7

0.4-37.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

84.6

7.7

 

 

 

 

7.7

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

81.8

18.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid Kentucky

0

19.9

16.3-24.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

79

0.7

0.2

0.2

 

1.8

18.1

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

17.6

11.9-25.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

78.9

0.7

 

2.8

 

2.8

14.8

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

97.6

0.8

 

1.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

2

46

32.1-60.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

 

 

2

2

4

42

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

2

16.3

7.8-30.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

75.5

4.1

2

 

2

 

16.3

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

15.2

5.7-32.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

81.8

 

 

3

 

 

15.2

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

92.3

 

 

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ceftiofur Kentucky

0.2

19.9

16.3-24.0

 

 

 

0.2

8.4

63.4

7.7

0.2

0.2

2.3

17.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

16.9

11.3-24.3

 

 

 

 

 

66.9

16.2

 

 

1.4

15.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

1.6

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

 

0.8

12.1

85.5

 

1.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

2

44

30.3-58.7

 

 

 

 

 

42

12

 

2

20

24

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

0

16.3

7.8-30.2

 

 

 

 

 

71.4

12.2

 

 

6.1

10.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

15.2

5.7-32.7

 

 

 

3

 

42.4

39.4

 

 

 

15.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-20.0

 

 

 

 

 

70

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

6.2

93.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

84.6

15.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

9.1

90.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

72.7

27.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ceftriaxone Kentucky

13.3

0.2

0-1.4

 

 

 

 

79.7

0.5

 

 

0.5

5.9

11.3

2

0.2

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

12

1.4

0.2-5.5

 

 

 

 

82.4

 

 

 

0.7

3.5

8.5

3.5

1.4

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

20

0

0.0-8.9

 

 

 

 

54

 

 

 

4

22

16

4

 

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

10.2

0

0.0-9.1

 

 

 

 

83.7

 

 

 

 

6.1

8.2

2

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

12.1

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

 

84.8

 

 

 

 

3

12.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-20.0

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cefoxitin Kentucky

3.6

16.3

13.1-20.1

 

 

 

 

 

0.5

16.9

46.7

14.7

1.4

3.6

13.5

2.7

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

16.9

11.3-24.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

19.7

39.4

18.3

5.6

 

7.7

9.2

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.6

65.3

24.2

8.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

12

30

18.3-44.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

22

28

6

12

26

4

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

0

16.3

7.8-30.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.2

46.9

22.4

6.1

 

14.3

2

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

15.2

5.7-32.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.1

42.4

21.2

12.1

 

15.2

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75

20

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

87.5

12.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

15.4

61.5

23.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

54.5

45.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfonamides Kentucky

N/A

3.8

2.3-6.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43.6

48.5

4.1

 

 

3.8

 

Heidelberg

N/A

13.4

8.5-20.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

69.7

16.9

 

 

 

13.4

 

Enteritidis

N/A

0.8

0-5.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.8

64.5

12.9

 

 

0.8

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

N/A

70

55.2-81.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

10

 

 

 

70

 

4,[5],12:i:-

N/A

6.1

1.6-17.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18.4

69.4

6.1

 

 

6.1

 

Typhimurium

N/A

45.5

28.6-63.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15.2

36.4

3

 

 

45.5

 

Montevideo

N/A

10

1.8-33.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45

45

 

 

 

10

 

Infantis

N/A

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18.8

56.2

25

 

 

 

 

Berta

N/A

7.7

0.4-37.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46.2

46.2

 

 

 

7.7

 

Mbandaka

N/A

9.1

0.5-42.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72.7

18.2

 

 

9.1

 

Schwarzengrund

N/A

9.1

0.5-42.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27.3

54.5

9.1

 

 

9.1

 

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Kentucky

N/A

0

0.0-1.1

 

 

 

90.7

8.6

0.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

N/A

0

0.0-3.3

 

 

 

87.3

10.6

2.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

N/A

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

91.1

8.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

N/A

0

0.0-8.9

 

 

 

64

18

16

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

N/A

0

0.0-9.1

 

 

 

87.8

12.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

N/A

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

75.8

9.1

12.1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

N/A

0

0.0-20.0

 

 

 

90

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

N/A

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

93.8

6.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

N/A

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

92.3

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

N/A

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

81.8

18.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

N/A

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

90.9

9.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chloramphenicol Kentucky

0.2

2

1.0-3.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.7

82.6

5.4

0.2

0.2

1.8

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0.7

4.2

1.7-9.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.5

72.5

0.7

 

4.2

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.8

50.8

48.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

2

2

0.1-12.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

54

38

2

 

2

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

0

0

0.0-9.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

49

51

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.1

42.4

51.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35

65

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

6.2

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.8

6.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

69.2

30.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72.7

27.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ciprofloxacin Kentucky

0

0

0.0-1.1

88.9

10.6

0.2

0.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

0

0.0-3.3

75.4

18.3

6.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0

0

0.0-3.7

55.6

41.1

3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

0

0

0.0-8.9

64

32

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

0

0

0.0-9.1

73.5

26.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

0

0.0-13.0

69.7

30.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-20.0

90

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

87.5

6.2

6.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

0

0

0.0-28.3

84.6

15.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-32.1

81.8

18.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-32.1

81.8

18.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nalidixic Acid Kentucky

N/A

0.2

0-1.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.7

66.1

29.3

1.6

 

 

0.2

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

N/A

0

0.0-3.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

66.2

21.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

N/A

0

0.0-3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.1

75.8

16.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

N/A

0

0.0-8.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

22

40

34

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

N/A

0

0.0-9.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46.9

28.6

22.4

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

N/A

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36.4

33.3

27.3

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

N/A

0

0.0-20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

70

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

N/A

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

37.5

12.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

N/A

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

61.5

30.8

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

N/A

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

63.6

27.3

9.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

N/A

0

0.0-32.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36.4

36.4

27.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tetracycline Kentucky

2.5

56.9

52.1-61.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40.6

2.5

0.2

1.4

55.3

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0.7

12.7

7.9-19.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

86.6

0.7

1.4

1.4

9.9

 

 

 

 

Enteritidis

0.8

2.4

0.6-7.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

96.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium var. 5-

0

68

53.2-80.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32

 

 

8

60

 

 

 

 

4,[5],12:i:-

0

14.3

6.4-27.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

85.7

 

2

2

10.2

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

48.5

31.2-66.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51.5

 

 

3

45.5

 

 

 

 

Montevideo

0

10

1.8-33.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90

 

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Berta

7.7

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

92.3

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

27.3

7.3-60.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72.7

 

 

 

27.3

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

9.1

0.5-42.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90.9

 

 

 

9.1

 

 

 

Table 7 notes:

95% confidence intervals for percent resistant (%R) were calculated using the Clopper-Pearson exact method

Antimicrobial subclasses and susceptible, intermediate and resistance breakpoints can be found in the antimicrobials and breakpoints section. 

N/A- Not applicable 

 

 



 


Salmonella (Table 6)

 

 

Table 6. Distribution of MICs and Occurrence of Resistance by Top Serotypes Tested from Turkeys, 2007

Antimicrobial

Serotype %I %R 95% CI Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/ml)
0.015 0.03 0.06 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024

Amikacin

Hadar

0

0

0.0-3.9

 

 

 

 

 

9.3

75.4

13.6

0.8

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

0

0

0.0-14.6

 

 

 

 

 

24.1

62.1

10.3

3.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

 

 

39.1

56.5

4.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

0

0.0-25.3

 

 

 

 

 

40

60

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

0

0.0-26.8

 

 

 

 

 

14.3

78.6

7.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

0

0.0-37.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

44.4

55.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

0

0

0.0-40.2

 

 

 

 

 

25

62.5

12.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

 

20

60

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gentamicin

Hadar

1.7

9.3

5.0-16.4

 

 

 

 

66.9

19.5

2.5

 

 

1.7

5.9

3.4

 

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

10.3

20.7

8.7-40.3

 

 

 

 

58.6

10.3

 

 

 

10.3

17.2

3.4

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

17.4

13

3.4-34.6

 

 

 

 

65.2

 

 

 

4.3

17.4

4.3

8.7

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

6.7

0

0.0-25.3

 

 

 

 

80

13.3

 

 

 

6.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

7.1

0.4-35.8

 

 

 

 

92.9

 

 

 

 

 

7.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

44.4

15.3-77.3

 

 

 

 

11.1

44.4

 

 

 

 

11.1

33.3

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

0

0

0.0-40.2

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kanamycin

Hadar

0

11

6.2-18.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

89

 

 

 

11

 

 

 

Saintpaul

6.9

17.2

6.5-36.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75.9

 

6.9

10.3

6.9

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

34.8

17.2-57.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

60.9

4.3

 

 

34.8

 

 

 

Newport

0

6.7

0.4-34.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.3

 

 

 

6.7

 

 

 

Agona

0

0

0.0-26.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

77.8

40.2-96.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.2

 

 

 

77.8

 

 

 

Reading

0

12.5

0.7-53.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

87.5

 

 

 

12.5

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

20

1.1-70.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

80

 

 

 

20

 

 

 

Streptomycin

Hadar

N/A

48.3

39.1-57.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

51.7

40.7

7.6

 

 

 

Saintpaul

N/A

6.9

1.2-24.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.1

 

6.9

 

 

 

Heidelberg

N/A

26.1

11.1-48.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

73.9

13

13

 

 

 

Newport

N/A

6.7

0.4-34.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.3

6.7

 

 

 

 

Agona

N/A

50

24.0-76.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

7.1

42.9

 

 

 

Senftenberg

N/A

66.7

30.9-91.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33.3

 

66.7

 

 

 

Reading

N/A

12.5

0.7-53.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

87.5

 

12.5

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

N/A

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

Ampicillin

Hadar

0

33.1

24.9-42.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

65.3

1.7

 

 

 

 

33.1

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

0

31

15.9-50.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

62.1

6.9

 

 

 

 

31

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

65.2

42.8-82.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

34.8

 

 

 

 

 

65.2

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

6.7

0.4-34.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.3

 

 

 

 

 

6.7

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

57.1

29.6-81.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

42.9

 

 

 

 

 

57.1

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

77.8

40.2-96.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.2

 

 

 

 

 

77.8

 

 

 

 

Reading

0

37.5

10.2-74.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

12.5

 

 

 

 

37.5

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

20

1.1-70.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

80

 

 

 

 

 

20

 

 

 

 

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

Hadar

24.6

1.7

0.3-6.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

64.4

2.5

 

6.8

24.6

 

1.7

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

17.2

13.8

4.5-32.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

62.1

6.9

 

 

17.2

3.4

10.3

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

4.3

26.1

11.1-48.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

30.4

4.3

 

34.8

4.3

 

26.1

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

6.7

0.4-34.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.3

 

 

 

 

 

6.7

 

 

 

 

Agona

7.1

50

24.0-76.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

42.9

 

 

 

7.1

7.1

42.9

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

55.6

0

0.0-37.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.2

 

 

22.2

55.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

12.5

25

4.5-64.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

50

12.5

 

 

12.5

25

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

80

 

 

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ceftiofur

Hadar

0

1.7

0.3-6.6

 

 

 

 

 

41.5

56.8

 

 

 

1.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

0

13.8

4.5-32.6

 

 

 

 

 

44.8

41.4

 

 

 

13.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

26.1

11.1-48.7

 

 

 

 

 

56.5

17.4

 

 

8.7

17.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

6.7

0.4-34.0

 

 

 

 

 

73.3

20

 

 

 

6.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

50

24.0-76.0

 

 

 

 

 

14.3

35.7

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

0

0.0-37.1

 

 

 

 

 

22.2

66.7

11.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

0

25

4.5-64.4

 

 

 

 

 

12.5

50

12.5

 

25

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ceftriaxone

Hadar

1.7

0

0.0-3.9

 

 

 

 

98.3

 

 

 

 

 

0.8

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

10.3

0

0.0-14.6

 

 

 

 

82.8

3.4

 

 

 

3.4

10.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

17.4

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

 

73.9

 

 

 

 

8.7

17.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

6.7

0

0.0-25.3

 

 

 

 

93.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.7

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

50

0

0.0-26.8

 

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

 

 

42.9

7.1

 

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

0

0.0-37.1

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

12.5

0

0.0-40.2

 

 

 

 

75

 

 

 

 

12.5

12.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cefoxitin

Hadar

0

1.7

0.3-6.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.9

68.6

20.3

3.4

 

0.8

0.8

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

3.4

10.3

2.7-28.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.3

48.3

20.7

6.9

3.4

6.9

3.4

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

8.7

17.4

5.7-39.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

17.4

34.8

17.4

4.3

8.7

13

4.3

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

6.7

0.4-34.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

13.3

73.3

6.7

 

 

6.7

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

50

24.0-76.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.1

35.7

7.1

 

 

50

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

0

0.0-37.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.1

66.7

22.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

37.5

25

4.5-64.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

12.5

37.5

25

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

40

40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfonamides

Hadar

N/A

11

6.2-18.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.2

53.4

14.4

 

 

11

 

Saintpaul

N/A

31

15.9-50.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.9

44.8

13.8

3.4

 

31

 

Heidelberg

N/A

34.8

17.2-57.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34.8

21.7

8.7

 

 

34.8

 

Newport

N/A

0

0.0-25.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

N/A

78.6

48.8-94.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.4

 

 

 

78.6

 

Senftenberg

N/A

55.6

22.7-84.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.2

22.2

 

 

 

55.6

 

Reading

N/A

25

4.5-64.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12.5

62.5

 

 

 

25

 

Schwarzengrund

N/A

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

60

20

20

 

 

 

 

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole

Hadar

N/A

0

0.0-3.9

 

 

 

80.5

16.9

0.8

0.8

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

N/A

3.4

0.2-19.6

 

 

 

69

24.1

 

 

3.4

 

3.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

N/A

4.3

0.2-23.9

 

 

 

87

8.7

 

 

 

 

4.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

N/A

0

0.0-25.3

 

 

 

93.3

6.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

N/A

0

0.0-26.8

 

 

 

71.4

28.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

N/A

11.1

0.6-49.3

 

 

 

33.3

22.2

22.2

 

11.1

 

11.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

N/A

0

0.0-40.2

 

 

 

87.5

12.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

N/A

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chloramphenicol

Hadar

0

0

0.0-3.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.8

76.3

22.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

6.9

3.4

0.2-19.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27.6

62.1

6.9

 

3.4

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

4.3

0.2-23.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

82.6

 

 

4.3

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

0

0.0-25.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.7

60

33.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

42.9

18.8-70.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.1

50

 

 

42.9

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

0

0.0-37.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.2

77.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

25

12.5

0.7-53.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

62.5

25

 

12.5

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ciprofloxacin

Hadar

0

0

0.0-3.9

78

21.2

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

0

0

0.0-14.6

75.9

24.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

0

0.0-17.8

73.9

21.7

4.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

0

0.0-25.3

80

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

0

0.0-26.8

85.7

14.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

0

0.0-37.1

77.8

11.1

11.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

0

0

0.0-40.2

12.5

50

37.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

0

0.0-53.7

60

40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nalidixic Acid

Hadar

N/A

0

0.0-3.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34.7

44.1

21.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

N/A

0

0.0-14.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

62.1

13.8

20.7

3.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

N/A

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26.1

47.8

26.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

N/A

0

0.0-25.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46.7

33.3

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

N/A

0

0.0-26.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.4

71.4

7.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

N/A

0

0.0-37.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.2

55.6

22.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reading

N/A

0

0.0-40.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12.5

37.5

50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

N/A

0

0.0-53.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40

40

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tetracycline

Hadar

0

98.3

93.4-99.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.7

 

 

25.4

72.9

 

 

 

 

Saintpaul

0

44.8

26.9-64.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

55.2

 

 

 

44.8

 

 

 

 

Heidelberg

0

65.2

42.8-82.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34.8

 

 

 

65.2

 

 

 

 

Newport

6.7

20

5.3-48.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

73.3

6.7

 

 

20

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

85.7

56.1-97.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14.3

 

 

 

85.7

 

 

 

 

Senftenberg

0

77.8

40.2-96.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.2

 

 

 

77.8

 

 

 

 

Reading

0

37.5

10.2-74.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

62.5

 

 

12.5

25

 

 

 

 

Schwarzengrund

0

40

7.3-83.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

60

 

 

 

40

 

 

 

Table 5 notes:

95% confidence intervals for percent resistant (%R) were calculated using the Clopper-Pearson exact method

Antimicrobial subclasses and susceptible, intermediate and resistance breakpoints can be found in the antimicrobials and breakpoints section. 

N/A- Not applicable 

 

 



 


Salmonella (Table 7)

 

Table 7. Distribution of MICs and Occurrence of Resistance by Top Serotypes Tested from Cattle, 2007

Antimicrobial

Serotype

%I1 %R2 95% CI3 Distribution (%) of MICs (µg/ml)
0.015 0.03 0.06 0.125 0.25 0.5 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024

Amikacin

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

56.8

40

3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

0

0

0.0-10.9

 

 

 

 

 

15

30

52.5

2.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muenster

0

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

 

 

6.1

78.8

12.1

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

0

0.0-14.1

 

 

 

 

 

33.3

63.3

3.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

40.7

51.9

7.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

8.3

70.8

20.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

0

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

 

 

30.4

65.2

4.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

11.8

70.6

17.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

23.5

52.9

23.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

0

0.0-26.8

 

 

 

 

 

14.3

78.6

7.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

69.2

23.1

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gentamicin

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

35.8

63.2

1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

0

10

3.3-24.6

 

 

 

 

35

50

5

 

 

 

5

5

 

 

 

 

 

Muenster

0

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

 

90.9

6.1

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

0

0.0-14.1

 

 

 

 

86.7

13.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

 

33.3

66.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

66.7

33.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

0

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

82.4

17.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

82.4

17.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

14.3

2.5-43.9

 

 

 

 

71.4

14.3

 

 

 

 

7.1

7.1

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kanamycin

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

0

45

29.6-61.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

52.5

2.5

 

 

45

 

 

 

Muenster

0

3

0.2-17.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

97

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

Newport

0

10

2.6-27.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

90

 

 

3.3

6.7

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

0

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

17.6

4.6-44.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

82.4

 

 

 

17.6

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

14.3

2.5-43.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

85.7

 

 

7.1

7.1

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Streptomycin

Montevideo

N/A

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

N/A

62.5

45.8-76.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

37.5

2.5

60

 

 

 

Muenster

N/A

6.1

1.1-21.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

93.9

 

6.1

 

 

 

Newport

N/A

83.3

64.5-93.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16.7

 

83.3

 

 

 

Mbandaka

N/A

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

N/A

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

N/A

4.3

0.2-23.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

95.7

 

4.3

 

 

 

Agona

N/A

64.7

38.6-84.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35.3

 

64.7

 

 

 

Meleagridis

N/A

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

N/A

42.9

18.8-70.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

57.1

21.4

21.4

 

 

 

Infantis

N/A

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

Ampicillin

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

98.9

1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

0

65

48.3-78.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.5

10

2.5

 

 

 

65

 

 

 

 

Muenster

0

6.1

1.1-21.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

90.9

3

 

 

 

 

6.1

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

76.7

57.3-89.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

23.3

 

 

 

 

 

76.7

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

3.7

0.2-20.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

96.3

 

 

 

 

 

3.7

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

0

4.3

0.2-23.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

87

8.7

 

 

 

 

4.3

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

64.7

38.6-84.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

35.3

 

 

 

 

 

64.7

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

94.1

5.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

42.9

18.8-70.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

57.1

 

 

 

 

 

42.9

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amoxicillin/Clavulanic Acid

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

98.9

1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

0

50

34.1-65.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

22.5

10

10

7.5

 

5

45

 

 

 

 

Muenster

0

3

0.2-17.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

90.9

3

3

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

76.7

57.3-89.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

23.3

 

 

 

 

26.7

50

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

3.7

0.2-20.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

92.6

3.7

 

 

 

3.7

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

0

4.3

0.2-23.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

91.3

4.3

 

 

 

 

4.3

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

64.7

38.6-84.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

35.3

 

 

 

 

 

64.7

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

94.1

5.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

14.3

21.4

5.7-51.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

57.1

 

 

7.1

14.3

 

21.4

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

92.3

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ceftiofur

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

75.8

24.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

2.5

47.5

31.8-63.7

 

 

 

 

10

20

17.5

2.5

2.5

17.5

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muenster

3

3

0.2-17.5

 

 

 

 

 

15.2

78.8

 

3

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

76.7

57.3-89.4

 

 

 

 

 

13.3

6.7

3.3

 

 

76.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

3.7

0.2-20.9

 

 

 

 

 

3.7

92.6

 

 

 

3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

66.7

29.2

4.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

8.7

4.3

0.2-23.9

 

 

 

 

 

52.2

30.4

4.3

8.7

 

4.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

64.7

38.6-84.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

35.3

 

 

 

64.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

5.9

94.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

21.4

5.7-51.2

 

 

 

 

 

42.9

35.7

 

 

7.1

14.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ceftriaxone

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

45

0

0.0-10.9

 

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

2.5

2.5

35

10

 

 

 

 

 

Muenster

3

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

 

93.9

3

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

66.7

6.7

1.2-23.6

 

 

 

 

23.3

 

 

 

 

3.3

33.3

33.3

6.7

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

 

96.3

 

 

 

 

3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

4.3

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

 

82.6

 

4.3

4.3

 

4.3

4.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

64.7

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

35.3

 

 

 

 

 

47.1

17.6

 

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

14.3

0

0.0-26.8

 

 

 

 

78.6

 

 

 

 

7.1

14.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cefoxitin

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.5

70.5

15.8

3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

2.5

47.5

31.8-63.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

2.5

17.5

20

2.5

 

47.5

 

 

 

 

Muenster

3

3

0.2-17.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72.7

21.2

3

3

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

76.7

57.3-89.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16.7

6.7

 

 

30

46.7

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

3.7

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.7

81.5

11.1

3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

20.8

58.3

20.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

8.7

4.3

0.2-23.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

69.6

17.4

8.7

 

4.3

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

64.7

38.6-84.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29.4

5.9

 

 

64.7

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

76.5

23.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

21.4

5.7-51.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

71.4

7.1

 

 

21.4

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

7.7

 

 

69.2

23.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfonamides

Montevideo

N/A

1.1

0.1-6.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46.3

48.4

4.2

 

 

1.1

 

Dublin

N/A

70

53.3-82.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27.5

 

2.5

 

 

70

 

Muenster

N/A

6.1

1.1-21.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66.7

27.3

 

 

6.1

 

Newport

N/A

83.3

64.5-93.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16.7

 

 

 

83.3

 

Mbandaka

N/A

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.4

59.3

29.6

3.7

 

 

 

Cerro

N/A

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20.8

58.3

20.8

 

 

 

 

Anatum

N/A

4.3

0.2-23.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43.5

43.5

8.7

 

 

4.3

 

Agona

N/A

64.7

38.6-84.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17.6

17.6

 

 

 

64.7

 

Meleagridis

N/A

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35.3

47.1

17.6

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

N/A

50

24.0-76.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42.9

7.1

 

 

50

 

Infantis

N/A

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23.1

69.2

7.7

 

 

 

 

Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole

Montevideo

N/A

1.1

0.1-6.6

 

 

 

85.3

13.7

 

 

 

 

1.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

N/A

10

3.3-24.6

 

 

 

30

27.5

22.5

7.5

2.5

5

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muenster

N/A

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

78.8

18.2

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

N/A

13.3

4.3-31.6

 

 

 

40

43.3

 

3.3

 

 

13.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

N/A

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

88.9

11.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

N/A

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

91.7

8.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

N/A

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

78.3

21.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

N/A

11.8

2.1-37.8

 

 

 

58.8

23.5

5.9

 

 

 

11.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

N/A

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

88.2

11.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

N/A

0

0.0-26.8

 

 

 

57.1

14.3

28.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

N/A

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

92.3

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chloramphenicol

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31.6

68.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

5

70

53.3-82.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

15

5

5

 

70

 

 

 

 

Muenster

0

6.1

1.1-21.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.2

72.7

 

 

6.1

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

76.7

57.3-89.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.7

16.7

 

 

76.7

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

3.7

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.7

92.6

3.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

87.5

12.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

0

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26.1

73.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

64.7

38.6-84.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35.3

 

 

64.7

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

64.7

35.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

50

24.0-76.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14.3

35.7

 

 

50

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.7

92.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ciprofloxacin

Montevideo

0

0

0.0-4.8

84.2

12.6

3.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

0

0

0.0-10.9

40

52.5

 

2.5

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muenster

0

0

0.0-13.0

78.8

18.2

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

0

0

0.0-14.1

83.3

16.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

0

0

0.0-15.5

77.8

22.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

0

0

0.0-17.2

91.7

8.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

0

0

0.0-17.8

73.9

26.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Agona

0

0

0.0-22.9

82.4

17.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meleagridis

0

0

0.0-22.9

76.5

23.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typhimurium

0

0

0.0-26.8

71.4

28.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Infantis

0

0

0.0-28.3

84.6

 

15.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nalidixic Acid

Montevideo

N/A

0

0.0-4.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

65.3

23.2

11.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dublin

N/A

7.5

2.0-21.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.5

20

62.5

7.5

 

2.5

5

 

 

 

 

Muenster

N/A

0

0.0-13.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21.2

66.7

12.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newport

N/A

0

0.0-14.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

70

20

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mbandaka

N/A

0

0.0-15.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

74.1

11.1

14.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cerro

N/A

0

0.0-17.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

70.8

29.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anatum

N/A

0

0.0-17.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.3

69.6

26.1