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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Weed Biological Control Agents Imported and Established in California through 1991.
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The following table provides an historical perspective on biological control of weeds in California. It is based on information provided in Turner et al. 1992. Biological Approaches to Weed Management, pages 32 - 67, in T. Beall (Editor), Beyond Pesticides: Biological Approaches to Pest Management in California, University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication Number 21512.


Weed Biocontrol Agent (type) Control Status Reference
musk thistle (Carduus nutans) Rhinocyllus conicus (beetle) Partial Andres & Rees, 1995
Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus Rhinocyllus conicus (beetle) Partial Goeden, 1995a
diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) Urophora affinis (fly) Unknown Turner et al., 1995
yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitalis) Bangasternus orientalis (beetle)  Unknown Turner et al., 1995
yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitalis) Eustenopus villosus (beetle) Unknown  Turner et al., 1995
yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitalis) Urophora sirunaseva (fly) Unknown Turner et al., 1995
rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) Cystiphora schmidti (fly) Partial Supkoff et al., 1988
rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) Eriophyes chondrillae (mite) Negligible Supkoff et al., 1988
rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) Puccinia chondrillina (fungus) Partial Supkoff et al., 1988
Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) Urophora cardui (fly) Negligible Piper & Andres, 1995
Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) Apion fuscirostre (beetle) Negligible Andres 1979
Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) Leucoptera spartifoliella (moth) Negligible Andres 1979
water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Neochetina bruchi (beetle) Unknown  
water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Neochetina eichhorniae (beetle) Unknown  
hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) Ctenopharyngodon idella (fish) Excellent Stocker & Hagstrom 1985
Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum) Agrilus hyperici (beetle) Partial McCaffrey et al., 1995
Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum) Chrysolina quadrigemina (beetle) Excellent Huffaker & Kennett 1959
Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum) Zeuxidiplosis giardi (fly) Negligible McCaffrey et al., 1995
prickly pear (Opuntia littoralis) Dactylopius opuntiae (scale insect) Excellent Goeden et al., 1967
prickly pear (Opuntia oricola) Dactylopius opuntiae (scale insect) Excellent Goeden et al., 1967
Russian Thistle (Salsola australis) Colephora klimeschiella (moth) Negligible Goeden & Pemberton, 1995
Russian Thistle (Salsola australis) Colephora parthenica (moth) Negligible Goeden & Pemberton, 1995
Mediterranean sage (Salvia aethiopis) Phrydiuchus tau (beetle) Partial Andres et al., 1995
tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) Longitarsus jacobaeae (beetle) Excellent Pemberton & Turner 1990
tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) Pegohylemyia seneciella (fly) Unknown Frick 1969
tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) Tyria jacobaeae (moth) Partial Pemberton & Turner 1990
milk thistle (Silybum marianum) Rhinocyllus conicus (beetle) Negligible Goeden, 1995b
puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) Microlarinus lypriformis (beetle) Partial Maddox & Andres 1979
puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) Microlarinus lareynii (beetle) Partial Maddox & Andres 1979
gorse (Ulex europaeus) Exapion ulicis (beetle) Unknown  

 
 

References Cited

Andres, L. A. and N. E. Rees. 1995. Musk thistle. Carduus nutans L. (Asteraceae), pp. 248 - 251, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Andres, L. A.,  E. Coombs, and J. P. McCaffrey. 1995. Mediterranean sage Salvia aethiopis L. (Labiaatae),  pp. 296 - 298, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Andres, L. A. 1979. Biological control -- will it solve the broom problem. Fremontia (October).

Frick, K. E. 1969.  Tansy ragwort control, aided by the establishement of seedfly from Paris. California Agriculture 23: 10-11.

Goeden, R. D. 1995a. Italian thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus L. (Asteraceae), pp. 242 - 244, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Goeden, R. D.. 1995b. Milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner. (Asteraceae), pp. 245 - 247,  in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3661, 356 pp.

Goeden, R. D. and R. W. Pemberton. 1995. Russian thistle, Salsola australis R. Brown (Chenopodiaceae),  pp. 276 - 280, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Huffaker, C. B. and C. E. Kennett. 1959. A ten-year study of vegetation change associated with biological control of Klamath weed. J. Range Management 12: 69-82.

Maddox, D. M. and L. A. Andres. 1979. Status of puncturevine weevils and theri host plant in California. California Agriculutre 33: 7-9.

McCaffrey, J. P., C. L. Campbell, and L. A. Andres. 1995. St Johns-wort Hypericum perforatum L. (Clusiaceae), pp.  281-285,  in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Pemberton, R. W. and C. E. Turner. 1990. Biological control of Senecio jacobaea in northern California, an enduring success. Entomophaga 35: 71-77.

Piper, G. L. and L. A. Andres. 1995. Canada thistle. Cirsium arvense ( L.) Scop. (Asteraceae),  pp. 233 - 236, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Stocker, R. K. and N. T. hagstrom. 1985. Control of submerged aquatic plants with triploid grass carp in southern California irrigation canals. Proc. 5th Ann. Conf. and Int. Symp. on Applied Lake and Watershed Management. Lake Geneva, WI.

Supkoff, D. M,, D. B. Joley, and J. J. Morois. 1988. Effect of introduced biological control organisms on the density of Chondrilla juncea in California. J. Applied Ecology 25: 1089-1095.

Turner, C. E., J. B. Johnson, and J. P. McCaffrey. 1995. Yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis  (Asteraceae), pp. 270-275, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.


Last Modified: 12/7/2006
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