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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Emeriti
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Russell J. Molyneux

Russell Molyneux received B.Sc. (Chemistry) and Ph.D. (Organic Chemistry) degrees from the University of Nottingham (UK), and is an elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry (FRSC) and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), as well as the awardee of a McMaster Fellowship by the CSIRO (Australia). In recognition of his contributions to natural products chemistry, Dr. Molyneux received the 2006 Kenneth A. Spencer Award. Prior to joining the USDA Agricultural Research Service Western Regional Research Center (Albany, CA), Dr. Molyneux held appointments at the University of Oregon and Oregon State University. He is internationally recognized for his research on the chemistry of poisonous plants, particularly those causing hepatotoxicity and abortion, and those giving rise to the classic "loco" disease and its associated syndromes. Until his retirement in January 2010, he led a project designed to prevent the formation of aflatoxins in tree nuts through identification of natural phytochemical resistance factors and conducted research to investigate metabolites of the fungus Eutypa lata that induce dying arm disease in grapes. Dr. Molyneux is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry and is currently an Affiliate Faculty member of the College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo (current email).

Bruce C. Campbell

Bruce Campbell was the Research Leader for the Plant Mycotoxin Research Unit from 1994 until his retirement in August 2012. He received a B. A. and M. Sc. from Rutgers University and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis.

Dr. Campbell has a broad spectrum of research experience involving biochemistry, evolutionary biology and molecular biology. Dr. Campbell was involved in chemogenomic and chemosensitization research. His research was done in collaboration with Dr. Jong H. Kim, FTDP, Dr. Russell Molyneux, College of Pharmacy, Univ. of Hawaii, Dr. Jiujiang Yu, ARS BARC Food Quality Lab, Beltsville, and Dr. William Nierman, at the J. Craig Venter Institute. The chemogenomic research involves the use of chemical probes to elucidate the functional genomics of mycotoxin biosynthesis. This work has led to the discovery of targeting the oxidative stress response system of fungi to inhibit mycotoxin production. The chemosensitization work was also done in collaboration with Dr. Robert Cramer, Dartmouth College, Dr. David A. Stevens, MD, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Dr. Greg May, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Univ. of Texas, Dr. Arunmozhi Balajee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Natália Faria and Dr. Maria de Luz Martins, Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, New Univ. of Lisbon, Portugal and Drs. Larisa Scherbakova and Vitaly Dzhavakhiya, Russian Research Institute of Phytopathology (VNIIF), Moscow. This work uses safe, natural products to target fungal genes that control stress response. This targeting results in greatly heightened sensitivity to commercial fungicides and antifungal drugs, with implications for improving veterinarial and medical treatment as well as controlling agriculturally important pathogens. Drs. Campbell and Kim received the Thomas J. Walsh Clinical Mycology Award for their research on chemosensitization as the most innovative research on chemotherapy for human mycoses in 2008.

Earlier research in Dr. Campbell's career originated the concept of tri-trophic interactions. This concept brought to light possible negative consequences in the interaction between biological control and host-plant resistance in that the chemical bases of insect-plant interactions involves other trophic levels, namely insect parasitoids or symbiotic bacteria. Later, with Dr. David Dreyer (ARS retired), he discovered structural differences in plant matrix heteropolysaccharides (e.g., pectins) affect host-plant recognition and feeding behavior by aphids. Dr. Campbell was also in the forefront of using molecular phylogenetic tools, based on DNA and RNA secondary structure, to infer evolutionary relationships among insects; including Hemiptera, with Drs. Thierry Bourgoin and David Ouvrard at the Museum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN), Paris, France, and Chalcidoidea, with Dr. John Heraty, University of California, Riverside.

Dr. Campbell has supervised the research of nine post-doctoral research associates, two Ph.D. students from the University of California, Berkeley, and Univ. of Oulu, Finland, Masters students from Northeastern Univ., the New Univ. of Lisbon and Univ. of Rome "La Sapienza" and a diplôme d'études approfondies and Ph. D. student from MNHN. In his lab, he has hosted visiting scholars from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Univ. of Oulu, ARRIP and MNHN. Dr. Campbell was Adjunct Professor to the Univ. of California, Berkeley and Scientific Officer for the Office of Scientific Quality Review in charge of peer-review of all ARS research projects. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and currently has >100 senior and co-authored publications as peer-reviewed journal papers and book chapters. He is currently an Associate Editor for Frontiers in Microbiology.


Last Modified: 7/18/2014
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