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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Wetland Reservoir Subirrigation System (WRSIS)
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1 - WRSIS Concept
2 - WRSIS Design
3 - Defiance County
4 - Fulton County
5 - Van Wert County
6 - Water Table Management Options
7 - Water Table Management Guidelines
8 - Environmental-Hydrologic-Hydraulic Monitoring Program
9 - WRSIS Climate and Crop Yield Data
10 - WRSIS Cumulative Growing Season Rainfall and Evapotranspiration
11 - Habitat Formation
12 - Bibliography
13 - Photos
WRSIS Climate and Crop Yield Data

 

WRSIS Climate Data (1996 - 2006)

Table 1: Mean Monthly Growing Season Climate Data Averaged Over the WRSIS Sites 

Month

 

Precip.M1

mm (inches)

PETM:Corn2

mm (inches)

PETM:Soybeans2

mm (inches)

Precip.M – PETM:Corn mm (inches)

Precip.M – ETM:Soybeans mm (inches)

May

91 (3.6)

35 (1.4)

30 (1.2)

56 (2.2)

61 (2.4)

June

94 (3.7)

97 (3.82)

94 (3.7)

-3 (-0.1)

0 (0.0)

July

92 (3.6)

149 (5.9)

141 (5.6)

-57 (-2.2)

-49 (-1.9)

August

78 (3.1)

122 (4.8)

115 (4.5)

-44 (-1.7)

-37 (-1.5)

September

81 (3.2)

61 (2.4)

52 (2.1)

20 (0.8)

29 (1.1)

 

Total

436 (17.2)

464 (18.3)

432 (17.0)

-28 (-1.1)

4 (0.2)

1  Data obtained from the NOAA - National Climate Data Center.

2  Value calculated using NOAA – National Climate Data Center temperature data.

 

Figure 6.  Average WRSIS precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data.  As shown, even in an average year with regard to precipitation, there is still a substantial crop water deficit, based on PET, in the crucial growing season months of July and August.

Table 2:  Total Growing Season (May 1 – Sept. 30) WRSIS Climate Data: 1996-2006

County

Year

Deviation from Average Precip.1 mm (inches)

Precip. - PETCorn2

 

mm (inches)

Precip. - PETSoybeans2

 

mm (inches)

 

 

 

 

Defiance

(Weather station is in

city of Defiance, OH.)

1997

250 (9.8)

234 (9.2)

265 (10.4)

1998

3 (0.1)

-56 (-2.2)

-21 (-0.8)

1999

-130 (-5.1)

-195 (-7.7)

-161 (-6.3)

2000

703 (2.83)

323 (1.33)

653 (2.63)

2001

2 (0.1)

-39 (-1.5)

-6 (-0.2)

2002

-28 (-1.1)

-98 (-3.9)

-63 (-2.5)

2003

239 (9.4)

217 (8.5)

248 (9.8)

2004

176 (6.9)

156 (6.1)

188 (7.4)

2005

-88 (-3.5)

-166 (-6.5)

-131 (-5.2)

2006

69 (2.7)

24 (0.9)

56 (2.2)

 

 

 

 

Fulton

(Weather station is in

city of Wauseon, OH.)

1996

-45 (-1.8)

-48 (-1.9)

-18 (-0.7)

1997

213 (8.4)

219 (8.6)

247 (9.7)

1998

63 (2.5)

39 (1.5)

71 (2.8)

1999

-41 (-1.6)

-79 (-3.1)

-47 (-1.9)

2000

203 (8.0)

195 (7.7)

226 (8.9)

2001

42 (1.7)

14 (0.6)

45 (1.8)

2002

-153 (-6.0)

-215 (-8.5)

-182 (-7.2)

2003

151 (5.9)

142 (5.6)

172 (6.8)

2004

57 (2.2)

66 (2.6)

96 (3.8)

2005

-51 (-2.0)

-100 (-3.9)

-67 (-2.6)

2006

208 (8.2)

183 (7.2)

214 (8.4)

 

 

 

 

Van Wert

(Weather station is in

city of Van Wert, OH.)

1997

225 (8.9)

220 (8.7)

250 (9.8)

1998

68 (2.7)

5 (0.2)

41 (1.6)

1999

-108 (-4.3)

-176 (-6.9)

-141 (-5.6)

2000

174 (6.9)

147 (5.8)

179 (7.1)

2001

593 (2.33)

183 (0.73)

513 (2.03)

2002

-78 (-3.1)

-148 (-5.8)

-113 (-4.5)

2003

390 (15.4)

374 (14.7)

405 (15.9)

2004

299 (11.8)

302 (11.9)

334 (13.2)

2005

-49 (-1.9)

-117 (-4.6)

-82 (-3.2)

2006

71 (2.8)

39 (1.5)

71 (2.8)

 

1  Equals the growing season precipitation for a particular year minus the average growing season precipitation.  Data obtained from the NOAA - National Climate Data Center.

2  Equals the growing season precipitation for a particular year minus that year’s calculated growing season potential crop evapotranspiration.  Data obtained from the NOAA - National Climate Data Center.

3  This value may be significantly underestimated due to missing data.


Note:
  Total growing season evapotranspiration was determined by adding May through September monthly values calculated using the following equation:


PETCrop =kCkLPETThornthwaite            ,

 

where PetCrop is the monthly potential evapotranspiration of a particular crop such as corn or soybean, kC is a copy adjustment coefficient, kL is a latitude adjustment coefficient and PETThornthwaite  is the monthly potential evapotranspiration of grass based on Thornthwaite’s method.

 

The following scale, based on deviation from average precipitation (DAP), was used as a guage for overall growing season wetness/dryness:

 

                        extremely dry [ DAP < -114 mm (-4.5 in.)]

                        dry [-114 mm (-4.5 in.) < DAP < -76 mm (-3.0 in.)]

                        marginally dry [-76 mm (-3.0 in.) < DAP < -38 mm (-1.5 in.)]

                        near average [-38 mm (-1.5 in.) < DAP < 38 mm (1.5 in.)]

                        marginally wet [38 mm (1.5 in.) < DAP < 76 mm (3.0 in.)] 

                        wet [76 mm (3.0 in.) < DAP < 114 mm (4.5 in.)]

          extremely wet [DAP > 114 mm (4.5 in.)]

 

The average growing season precipitation for Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties are 434 mm (17.08), 431 mm (16.96 in.), and 445 mm (17.50 in)., respectively. The year 1996 was marginally dry in Fulton county. The 1999 growing season in the three counties ranged from marginally dry to extremely dry. The Fulton and Van Wert County sites were, respectively, extremely dry and dry in 2002. During the 2005 growing season the Defiance County site was dry, while the Fulton and Van Wert County sites were marginally dry. The Defiance County site in 2002 had a near averge growing season in regard to precipitation. All three locations were either near average or marginally wet in 1998 and 2001; and wet or extremely wet in 1997, 2000, and 2003. For 2004, the Defiance and Van Wert County sites were extremely wet, while the Fulton county site was only marginally wet.  In  the 2006  growing season, the Fulton County site was extremely wet, while the Defiance and Van Wert sites were marginally wet.  
                                                                   

Table 3. WRSIS Growing Season Precipitation Classification

Year

Defiance County

Fulton County

Van Wert County

1996

-

marginally dry

-

1997

extremely wet

extremely wet

extremely wet

1998

near average

marginally wet

marginally wet

1999

extremely dry

marginally dry

dry

2000

marginally wet1

extremely wet

extremely wet

2001

near average

marginally wet

marginally wet1

2002

near average

extremely dry

dry

2003

extremely wet

extremely wet

extremely wet

2004

extremely wet

marginally wet

extremely wet

2005

dry

marginally dry

marginally dry

2006

marginally wet

extremely wet

marginally wet

1  Due to missing precipitation data, growing season may be wetter than indicated. 

 

WRSIS Crop Yield Data (1996 - 2006)

 

Note:   For the purpose of converting crop yield values between bushels/acre and kg/ha, the following values are used: 

 

            Field Corn - 1 bushels/acre = 62.86 kg/ha, and

            Soybeans – 1 bushels/acre = 67.43 kg/ha.

             

Table 4a:  Field Corn and Soybean Crop Yields (kg/ha): 1996-2006

WRSIS Site

Year

Corn (kg/ha)

Soybeans (kg/ha)

Subirrigated1

Control2

Difference3

Subirrigated1

Control2

Difference3

 

 

 

 

 

Defiance County

1997

9970

8373

1597

-

-

-

1998

8140

-

-

3621

-

-

1999

8738

7732

1006

2374

1497

877

2000

4557

4513

44

526

681

-155

2001

4803

5180

-377

1062

728

334

2002

6393

6776

-383

1585

1416

169

2003

6864

7763

-899

2434

2232

202

2004

6676

4740

1936

2003

1996

7

2005

5796

6236

-440

1537

2320

-783

2006

5129

4991

138

-

-

-

Avg.

6707

6255

289

1895

1551

94

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fulton

County

1996

11711

6839

4872

4552

3102

1450

1997

11962

10705

1257

4248

4073

175

1998

13232

11711

1521

4464

4248

216

1999

12025

8536

3489

4639

3675

964

2000

11409

10328

1081

3695

3392

303

2001

12063

4570

7493

4902

3247

1655

2002

12214

5393

6821

4005

2724

1281

2003

14615

14552

63

2562

2630

-67

2004

12698

8172

4526

4349

4045

304

2005

11610

9171

2439

-

-

-

2006

11566

10309

1257

-

-

-

Avg.

12283

9115

3168

4066

3459

607

 

 

 

 

 

Van Wert County

1997

9052

9322

-270

3129

3183

-54

1998

9498

10171

-673

2765

2778

-13

1999

11918

9844

2074

3506

2643

863

2000

10912

9687

1225

3581

3216

365

2001

12911

11855

1056

3634

3608

26

2002

-

-

-

4187

3007

1180

2003

-

-

-

2690

2522

169

2004

12069

11038

1031

3365

3641

-276

2005

11793

11849

-56

5064

4740

324

2006

8455

7229

1226

3270

3109

162

Avg.

10824

10127

698

3520

3243

276

1  Average subirrigated field crop yield.

2  Average control plot crop yield.

3  Difference equals subirrigated field crop yield minus control plot crop yield.

 

Table 4b:  Field Corn and Soybean Crop Yields (bushels/acre): 1996-2006

WRSIS Site

Year

Corn (bushels/acre)

Soybeans (bushels/acre)

Subirrigated1

Control2

Difference3

Subirrigated1

Control2

Difference3

 

 

 

 

 

Defiance County

1997

158.6

133.2

25.4

-

-

-

1998

129.5

-

-

53.7

-

-

1999

139.0

123.0

16.0

35.2

22.2

13.0

2000

72.5

71.8

0.7

7.9

10.1

-2.2

2001

76.4

82.4

-6.0

15.8

10.8

5.0

2002

101.7

107.8

-6.1

23.5

21.0

2.5

2003

109.2

123.5

-14.3

36.1

33.1

3.0

2004

106.2

75.4

30.8

29.7

29.6

0.1

2005

92.2

99.2

-7.0

22.8

34.4

-11.6

2006

81.6

79.4

2.2

-

-

-

Avg.

106.7

99.5

4.6

28.1

23.0

1.4

 

 

 

 

 

Fulton

County

1996

186.3

108.8

77.5

67.5

46.0

21.5

1997

190.3

170.3

20.0

63.0

60.4

2.6

1998

210.5

186.3

24.2

66.2

63.0

3.2

1999

191.3

135.8

55.5

68.8

54.5

14.2

2000

181.5

164.3

17.2

54.8

50.3

4.5

2001

191.9

72.7

119.2

61.2

48.2

13.0

2002

194.3

85.8

108.5

59.4

40.4

19.0

2003

232.5

231.5

1.0

38.0

39.0

-1.0

2004

202.0

130.0

72.0

64.5

60.0

4.5

2005

184.7

145.9

38.8

-

-

-

2006

184.0

164.0

20.0

-

-

-

Avg.

195.4

145.0

50.4

60.4

51.3

9.1

 

 

 

 

 

Van Wert County

1997

144.0

148.3

-4.3

46.4

47.2

-0.8

1998

151.1

161.8

-10.7

41.0

41.2

-0.2

1999

189.6

156.6

33.0

52.0

39.2

12.8

2000

173.6

154.1

19.5

53.1

47.7

5.4

2001

205.4

188.6

16.8

53.9

53.5

0.4

2002

-

-

-

62.1

44.6

17.5

2003

-

-

-

39.9

37.4

2.5

2004

192.0

175.6

16.4

49.9

54.0

-4.1

2005

187.6

188.5

-0.9

75.1

70.3

4.8

2006

134.5

115.0

19.5

48.5

46.1

2.4

Avg.

172.2

161.1

11.1

52.2

48.1

4.1

1  Average subirrigated field crop yield.

2  Average control plot crop yield.

3  Difference equals subirrigated field crop yield minus control plot crop yield.

 

 

Table 5:  Defiance County WRSIS Site Subirrigated Crop Yield Comparison
Between 2.4 m ( 8 ft) and 4.9 m (16 ft) Drain Line Spacings

Year

Corn - kg/ha (bushels/acre)

Soybeans - kg/ha (bushels/acre)

2.4 m Spacing

4.9 m Spacing

Difference1

2.4 m Spacing

4.9 m Spacing

Difference1

1997

10366 (164.9)

9574 (152.3)

792 (12.6)

-

-

-

1998

8423 (134.0)

7858 (125.0)

566 (9.0)

3466 (51.4)

3769 (55.9)

-303 (-4.5)

1999

9177 (146.0)

8298 (132.0)

880 (14)

2158 (32.0)

2583 (38.3)

-425 (-6.3)

2000

4752 (75.6)

4356 (69.3)

396 (6.3)

506 (7.5)

553 (8.2)

-47 (-0.7)

2001

5205 (82.8)

4400 (70.0)

805 (12.8)

1281 (19.0)

8432 (12.5)2

438 (6.5)

2002

6757 (107.5)

6022 (95.8)

735 (11.7)

1524 (22.6)

1645 (24.4)

-121 (-1.8)

2003

7229 (115.0)

6493 (103.3)

735 (11.7)

2380 (35.3)

2488 (36.9)

-108 (-1.6)

2004

6349 (101.0)

7072 (112.5)

-723 (-11.5)

2245 (33.3)

1780 (26.4)

465 (6.9)

2005

5796 (92.2)

5796 (92.2)

0 (0.0)

1463 (21.7)

1605 (23.8)

-142 (-2.1)

2006

5475 (87.1)

4777 (76.0)

698 (11.1)

-

-

-

 

Average

6952 (110.6)

6462 (102.8)

490 (7.8)

1881 (27.9)

1915 (28.4)

-34 (-0.5)

1  Difference equals 2.4 m drain line spacing crop yield minus 4.9 m drain line spacing crop yield.

2  Foraging groundhogs from adjacent woodland significantly reduced yield.

 

Note:  Subirrigated corn yields are better with a 2.4 m (8 ft) spacing between drain lines as compared to a 4.9 m (16 ft) spacing between drain lines. Conversely, subirrigated soybean yields are slightly better with a 4.9 m (16 ft) spacing between drain lines as compared to a 2.4 m (8ft) spacing between drain lines. 
 

Table 6:  Statistics on Crop Yield Differences (Subirrigated Field Minus Control Plot) in Relation to Growing Season Wetness/Dryness.

 

-Corn-

Near Average to Extremely Wet

Growing Seasons

-Corn-

Marginally Dry to Extremely Dry

Growing Seasons

-Soybeans-

Near Average to Extremely Wet

Growing Seasons

-Soybeans-

Marginally Dry to Extremely Dry

Growing Seasons

Mean

kg/ha (bu/ac)

 

1142 (18.2)

 

 

2526 (40.2)

 

196 (2.9)

 

770 (11.4)

Std. Dev.

kg/ha (bu/ac)

 

1923 (30.6)

 

2475 (39.4)

 

405 (6.0)

 

713 (10.6)

P1

P < 2.5 %

P < 2.5 %

P < 10 %

P < 2.5 %

 

 

-Corn-

All Growing Seasons Combined

-Soybeans-

All Growing Seasons Combined

Mean

kg/ha (bu/ac)

 

1538 (24.5)

 

372 (5.5)

Std. Dev.

kg/ha (bu/ac)

 

2144 (34.1)

 

572 (8.5)

P1

P < 0.1 %

P < 0.5 %

1  P equals the probability that the mean value is not significantly different than zero.  In the case of the data presented in this table, a low value of P indicates a high likelihood that the mean value of the subirrigated field minus control plot crop yield difference is substantially greater than zero.   

 

 

Note:  As of 2006, WRSIS subirrigated field copy yield increases for corn and soybeans, respectively, were 30.8% and 26.0% during drier growing seasons, 13.3% and 6.9% during near average tow etter growing seasons, and 18.1% and 13.0% overall.

 

 

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Last Modified: 3/6/2007
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