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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Weed Biological Control Agents Imported and Established in California through 1991.
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The following table provides an historical perspective on biological control of weeds in California. It is based on information provided in Turner et al. 1992. Biological Approaches to Weed Management, pages 32 - 67, in T. Beall (Editor), Beyond Pesticides: Biological Approaches to Pest Management in California, University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication Number 21512.


WeedBiocontrol Agent (type)Control StatusReference
musk thistle (Carduus nutans)Rhinocyllus conicus (beetle)PartialAndres & Rees, 1995
Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalusRhinocyllus conicus (beetle)PartialGoeden, 1995a
diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)Urophora affinis (fly)UnknownTurner et al., 1995
yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitalis)Bangasternus orientalis (beetle) UnknownTurner et al., 1995
yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitalis)Eustenopus villosus (beetle)Unknown Turner et al., 1995
yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitalis)Urophora sirunaseva (fly)UnknownTurner et al., 1995
rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea)Cystiphora schmidti (fly)PartialSupkoff et al., 1988
rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea)Eriophyes chondrillae (mite)NegligibleSupkoff et al., 1988
rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea)Puccinia chondrillina (fungus)PartialSupkoff et al., 1988
Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)Urophora cardui (fly)NegligiblePiper & Andres, 1995
Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)Apion fuscirostre (beetle)NegligibleAndres 1979
Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)Leucoptera spartifoliella (moth)NegligibleAndres 1979
water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)Neochetina bruchi (beetle)Unknown 
water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)Neochetina eichhorniae (beetle)Unknown 
hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata)Ctenopharyngodon idella (fish)ExcellentStocker & Hagstrom 1985
Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum)Agrilus hyperici (beetle)PartialMcCaffrey et al., 1995
Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum)Chrysolina quadrigemina (beetle)ExcellentHuffaker & Kennett 1959
Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum)Zeuxidiplosis giardi (fly)NegligibleMcCaffrey et al., 1995
prickly pear (Opuntia littoralis)Dactylopius opuntiae (scale insect)ExcellentGoeden et al., 1967
prickly pear (Opuntia oricola)Dactylopius opuntiae (scale insect)ExcellentGoeden et al., 1967
Russian Thistle (Salsola australis)Colephora klimeschiella (moth)NegligibleGoeden & Pemberton, 1995
Russian Thistle (Salsola australis)Colephora parthenica (moth)NegligibleGoeden & Pemberton, 1995
Mediterranean sage (Salvia aethiopis)Phrydiuchus tau (beetle)PartialAndres et al., 1995
tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea)Longitarsus jacobaeae (beetle)ExcellentPemberton & Turner 1990
tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea)Pegohylemyia seneciella (fly)UnknownFrick 1969
tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea)Tyria jacobaeae (moth)PartialPemberton & Turner 1990
milk thistle (Silybum marianum)Rhinocyllus conicus (beetle)NegligibleGoeden, 1995b
puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris)Microlarinus lypriformis (beetle)PartialMaddox & Andres 1979
puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris)Microlarinus lareynii (beetle)PartialMaddox & Andres 1979
gorse (Ulex europaeus)Exapion ulicis (beetle)Unknown 

 
 

References Cited

Andres, L. A. and N. E. Rees. 1995. Musk thistle. Carduus nutans L. (Asteraceae), pp. 248 - 251, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Andres, L. A.,  E. Coombs, and J. P. McCaffrey. 1995. Mediterranean sage Salvia aethiopis L. (Labiaatae),  pp. 296 - 298, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Andres, L. A. 1979. Biological control -- will it solve the broom problem. Fremontia (October).

Frick, K. E. 1969.  Tansy ragwort control, aided by the establishement of seedfly from Paris. California Agriculture 23: 10-11.

Goeden, R. D. 1995a. Italian thistle, Carduus pycnocephalus L. (Asteraceae), pp. 242 - 244, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Goeden, R. D.. 1995b. Milk thistle, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner. (Asteraceae), pp. 245 - 247,  in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3661, 356 pp.

Goeden, R. D. and R. W. Pemberton. 1995. Russian thistle, Salsola australis R. Brown (Chenopodiaceae),  pp. 276 - 280, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Huffaker, C. B. and C. E. Kennett. 1959. A ten-year study of vegetation change associated with biological control of Klamath weed. J. Range Management 12: 69-82.

Maddox, D. M. and L. A. Andres. 1979. Status of puncturevine weevils and theri host plant in California. California Agriculutre 33: 7-9.

McCaffrey, J. P., C. L. Campbell, and L. A. Andres. 1995. St Johns-wort Hypericum perforatum L. (Clusiaceae), pp.  281-285,  in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Pemberton, R. W. and C. E. Turner. 1990. Biological control of Senecio jacobaea in northern California, an enduring success. Entomophaga 35: 71-77.

Piper, G. L. and L. A. Andres. 1995. Canada thistle. Cirsium arvense ( L.) Scop. (Asteraceae),  pp. 233 - 236, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.

Stocker, R. K. and N. T. hagstrom. 1985. Control of submerged aquatic plants with triploid grass carp in southern California irrigation canals. Proc. 5th Ann. Conf. and Int. Symp. on Applied Lake and Watershed Management. Lake Geneva, WI.

Supkoff, D. M,, D. B. Joley, and J. J. Morois. 1988. Effect of introduced biological control organisms on the density of Chondrilla juncea in California. J. Applied Ecology 25: 1089-1095.

Turner, C. E., J. B. Johnson, and J. P. McCaffrey. 1995. Yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis  (Asteraceae), pp. 270-275, in J. R. Nechols, L. A. Andres, J. W. Beardsley, R. D. Goeden and C.G. Jackson (Editors) Biological control in the U.S. Western Region: accomplishments and benefits of Regional Research Project  W-84, 1964-1989.  Oakland : University of California, Division of  Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3361, 356 pp.


Last Modified: 8/13/2016
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