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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Related Topics

CAROL LEVIN
Produce Safety and Microbiology Research
Food Technologist

Phone: (510) 559-5879
Fax: (510) 559-5777
Room 3129
USDA, ARS, PWA, WRRC-PSM
800 BUCHANAN STREET
ALBANY, CA, 94710


Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Protein, free amino acid, phenloic, ß-carotene, and lycopene content, and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects of 12 greenhouse-grown commercial cherry tomato varieties - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Choi, S., Kim, D., Kozukue, N., Kim, H., Nishitani, Y., Mizuno, M., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2014. Protein, free amino acid, phenloic, ß-carotene, and lycopene content, and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects of 12 greenhouse-grown commercial cherry tomato varieties. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 34(2):115-127. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2014.03.005.
Bactericidal activities of health-promoting,food-derived powders against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli,listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica,and staphylococcus aureus - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Henika, P.R., Levin, C.E. 2013. Bactericidal activities of health-promoting,food-derived powders against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli,listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica,and staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Food Science. doi:10.1111/1750-3841.12021 78:M270-M275.
Changes in free amino acid, protein, flavonoids, and phenolic content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Choi,, S., Ahn, J., Kim, H., Im, N., Kozukue, N., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2012. Changes in free amino acid, protein, flavonoids, and phenolic content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(41):10245-10255. doi:10.1021/jf302848u.
Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with Cinnamaldehyde and Carvacrol Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Du, W., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Woods, R.D., Breksa III, A.P., Mchugh, T.H., Friedman, M., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, R.E. 2012. Sensory evaluation of baked chicken wrapped with antimicrobial apple and tomato edible films formulated with Cinnamaldehyde and Carvacrol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(32):7799-7804. DOI: 10.1021/jf301281a.
Structure-activity relationships of a-, ß1-, and d-Tomatines and Tomatidine Against Human Breast (MDA-MB-231), Gastric (KATO-III), and Prostate (PC3) Cancer Cells - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Choi, S., Ahn, J., Kozukue, N., Kim, H., Nishitani, Y., Mizuno, M., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2012. Structure-activity relationships of a-, ß1-, and d-Tomatines and Tomatidine Against Human Breast (MDA-MB-231), Gastric (KATO-III), and Prostate (PC3) Cancer Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. doi.org/10.1021/jf3003027.
Free amino acid, protein, and phenolic content and antioxidative and cancer cell-inhibiting activities of extracts of 11 greenhouse-grown tomato varieties and 13 tomato-based foods - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Choi, S., Kim, H., Kim, H., Lee, I., Kozukue, N., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2011. Free amino acid, protein, and phenolic content and antioxidative and cancer cell-inhibiting activities of extracts of 11 greenhouse-grown tomato varieties and 13 tomato-based foods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2011,59:12801-12814.
Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Choi, S., Ahn, J., Kozukue, N., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2011. Distribution of free amino acids, flavonoids, total phenolics, and antioxidative activities of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruits and seeds harvested from plants grown in Korea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59:6594-6604.
Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids - (Review Article)
Friedman, M., Levin, C.E. 2011. Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids. Amino Acids. 10.100/s00726-011-0915-1.
Nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives in mice - (Book / Chapter)
Friedman, M., Levin, C.E. 2012. Nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives in mice. Polleioni & Servi, S., editors. Unnatural Amino Acids Methods and Protocols. New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London. Humana Press. Vol. 794, p. 337-356.
Low-temperature Storage of Cucumbers Induces Changes in the Organic Acid Content and in Citrate Synthase Activity - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Tsuchida, H., Kozuke, N., Han Gyeong, P., Choisuk, H., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2010. Low-temperature Storage of Cucumbers Induces Changes in the Organic Acid Content and in Citrate Synthase Activity. Postharvest Biology and Technology. 58:129-134.
Changes in free amino acid, chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolic, and glycoalkaloid content in tomatoes during 11 stages of growth, and inhibition of cervical, lung, and lymphoma human cancer cells by green tomato extracts Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Choi, S.H., Kim, H.J., Lee, I.S., Kozukue, N., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2010. Changes in free amino acid, chlorophyll, carotenoid, phenolic, and glycoalkaloid content in tomatoes during 11 stages of growth, and inhibition of cervical, lung, and lymphoma human cancer cells by green tomato extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58:7547-7556.
Distribution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidative Activities in Parts of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batata L.) plants and in home processed roots - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2010.1003.1025
Inhibition of Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) in Apple Juices and its Resistance to Pasteurization - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Rasooly, R., Do, P.M., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2010. Inhibition of Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) in Apple Juices and its Resistance to Pasteurization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Vol. 75(5):M296-M301.
Allspice, garlic and oregano plant essential oils in tomato films inactivate the foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:h7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes - (Abstract Only)
Du, W., Olsen, C.W., Mc Hugh, T.H., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, R.E., Friedman, M. 2010. Allspice, garlic and oregano plant essential oils in tomato films inactivate the foodbrone pathogens Escherichia coli Ol57:h7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes. Progress in Nutrition. p. 85-86.
Hedonic evaluation of cooked chicken wrapped with apple and tomato films formulated with cinnamaldehvde and carvacrol - (Abstract Only)
Du, W., Avena Bustillos, R.D., Woods, R.D., Mc Hugh, T.H., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, R.E., Friedman, M. 2010. Hedonic evaluation of cooked chicken wrapped with apple and tomato films formulated with cinnamaldehvde and carvacrol. Progress in Nutrition. p. 87.
Tomatine-Containing Green Tomato Extracts Inhibit Growth of Human Breast, Colon, Liver, and Stomach Cancer Cells Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Levin, C.E., Lee, S., Hyung-Jeong, K., Lee, I., Byun, J., Kosukue, N. 2009. Tomatine-Containing Green Tomato Extracts Inhibit Growth of Human Breast, Colon, Liver, and Stomach Cancer Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57:5727-5733.
Antibacterial Effects of Allspice, Garlic, and Oregano Essential Oils in Tomato Films Determined by Overlay and Vapor-Phase Methods - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Du, W., Olsen, C.W., Avena-Bustillos, R.D., Mc Hugh, T.H., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, R.E., Friedman, M. 2009. Antibacterial Effects of Allspice, Garlic, and Oregano Essential Oils in Tomato Films Determined by Overlay and Vapor-Phase Methods. Journal of Food Science. 74(7):M390-M397.
Effects of Allspice, Cinnamon, and Clove Bud Essential Oils in Edible Apple Films on Physical Properties and Antimicrobial Activities - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Du, W., Olsen, C.W., Avena-Bustillos, R.D., Mc Hugh, T.H., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2009. Effects of Allspice, Cinnamon, and Clove Bud Essential Oils in Edible Apple Films on Physical Properties and Antimicrobial Activities. Journal of Food Science. 74(7):M372-M378.
Changes in the Composition of Raw Tea Leaves from the Korean Yabukida Plant during High-temperature Processing to Pan-Fried Kamairi-cha Green Tea Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Levin, C.E., Choi, S., Lee, S., Kozukue, N. 2009. Changes in the Composition of Raw Tea Leaves from the Korean Yabukida Plant during High-temperature Processing to Pan-Fried Kamairi-cha Green Tea. Journal of Food Science. 74(5):406-412.
Allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud plant essential oils in edible apple films inactivate the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes - (Abstract Only) - (11-Feb-09)
Allspice, garlic, and oregano plant essential oils in tomato films inactive the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes - (Abstract Only) - (11-Feb-09)
Hedonic evaluation of cooked chicken wrapped with apple and tomato films formulated with cinnamaldehyde and carvacol - (Abstract Only) - (11-Feb-09)
Distribution of Glycoalkaloids in Potato Tubers of 59 Accessions of Two Wild and Five Cultivated Solanum Species Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kozukue, N., Yoon, K., Byun, G., Misoo, S., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2008. Distribution of Glycoalkaloids in Potato Tubers of 59 Accessions of Two Wild and Five Cultivated Solanum Species. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56(24):11920-11928.
Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Levin, C.E., Lee, S., Kozukue, N. 2009. Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Commercial Tea Leaves during Storage for 6 Months. Journal of Food Science. 74(2):47-51.
Flavonoid Content in Fresh, Home Processed, and Light-Exposed Onions and in Dehydrated Commercial Onion Products - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S., Lee, J., Choi, S., Lee, J., Ohnishi-Kameyama, M., Kozukue, N., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2008. Flavonoid Content in Fresh, Home Processed, and Light-Exposed Onions and in Dehydrated Commercial Onion Products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56(18):8541-8548.
Antibacterial Activity against E. coli O157:H7, Physical Properties, and Storage Stability of Novel Carvacrol-Containing Edible Tomato Films - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Du, W., Olsen, C.W., Avena-Bustillos, R., Mc Hugh, T.H., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2008. Antibacterial Activity against E. coli O157:H7, Physical Properties, and Storage Stability of Novel Carvacrol-Containing Edible Tomato Films. Journal of Food Science. 73(7):M378-383.
Review of methods for the reduction of dietary content & toxicity of acrylamide - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Levin, C.E. 2008. Review of methods for the reduction of dietary content & toxicity of acrylamide. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56:6113-6140.
Analysis by HPLC and LC/MS of Pungent Piperamides in Commercial Black,White, Green, and Red Whole and Ground Peppercorns. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Levin, C.E., Lee, S., Lee, J., Ohnisi-Kameyama, M., Kozukue, N. 2008. Analysis by HPLC and LC/MS of Pungent Piperamides in Commercial Black,White, Green, and Red Whole and Ground Peppercorns.. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56(9):3028-3036.
Storage Stability and Antibacterial Activity against E. coli O157:H7 of Carvacrol in Edible Apple Films made by Two Different Casting Methods - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Du, W., Olsen, C.W., Avena-Bustillos, R.D., Mc Hugh, T.H., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2008. Storage Stability and Antibacterial Activity against Echerichia coli O157:H7 of Carvacrol in Edible Apple Films made by Two Different Casting Methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56:3082-2088.
Analysis of Phenolic Compounds by HPLC and LC/MS in Potato Plant Flowers, Leaves, Stems, and Tubers and in Home Processed Potatoes - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Im, H., Suh, B., Lee, S., Kozukue, N., Ohnisi-Kameyama, M., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2008. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds by HPLC and LC/MS in Potato Plants, Flowers, Leaves, Stems, and Tubers and in Home Processed Potatoes. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 56, 3341-3349
Kinetics of Light-Induced cis-trans Isomerization of Four Piperines and their Levels in Ground Black Peppers as Determined by HPLC and LC/MS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kozukue, N., Park, M., Choi, S., Lee, S., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2007. Kinetics of Light-Induced cis-trans Isomerization of Four Piperines and their Levels in Ground Black Peppers as Determined by HPLC and LC/MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55:7131-7139.
Recipes for Antimicrobial Wine Marinades against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Henika, P.R., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, R.E. 2007. Recipes for Antimicrobial Wine Marinades against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Science. 72(6):M207-M213.
Analysis of the Contents of Pungent Compounds in Fresh Korean Peppers and Pepper-Containing Foods - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Choi, S., Suh, B., Kozukue, E., Kozukue, N., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2006. Analysis of the contents of pungent compounds in fresh korean peppers and pepper-containing foods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Antimicrobial Wine Formulations Against the Foodborne Pathogens Escherichia Coli O157: H7 and Salmonella Enterica - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Henika, P.R., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, 2006 R.E. Antimicrobial wine formulations against the foodborne pathogens escherichia coli O157: H7 and salmonella enterica. Journal of Food Science 71(7):245-251
Hplc Analysis of Catechins, Theraflavins, and Alkaloids in Commercial Teas and Green Tea Dietary Supplements: Comararison of Water and 80% Ethanol/water Extracts - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Levin, C.E., Choi, S., Kozukue, E., Kozukue, N. 2006. Hplc analysis of catechins, theraflavins, and alkaloids in commercial teas and green tea dietary supplements: comararison of water and 80% ethanol/water extracts. Journal of Food Science. 71(6):C328-C337
Analysis of Seven Capsaicinoids in Peppers and Pepper-Containing Foods by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kozukue, N., Han, J., Lee, S., Kim, J., Lee, K., Park, M., Levin, C.E., Friedman, M. 2005. Analysis of seven capsaicinoids in peppers and pepper-containing foods by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 53:9172-9181.
Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Henika, P.R., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, R.E., Kozukue, N. 2006. Antimicrobial activities of tea catechins and theaflavins and tea extracts against Bacillus cereus. Journal of Food Protection. 69(2):354-361
Antibiotic Activities of Green Tea Catechins and Green Tea Extracts at Nanomolar Levels Against the Foodborne Pathogen Bacillus Cereus - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Henika, P.R., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, R.E. 2006. Antibiotic activities of green tea catechins and green tea extracts at nanomolar levels against the foodborne pathogen bacillus cereus. Journal of Food Protection. 69:100-107.
Structure-Antibiotic Activity Relationships of Plant Compounds Against Nonresistant and Antibiotic-Resistant Foodborne Pathogens - (Proceedings)
Friedman, M., Henika, P.R., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, R.E. 2006 Structure-antibiotic activity relationships of plant compounds against nonresistant and antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens. Advanaces in Microbial Food Safety. Juneja, V.K.,Cherry, J.P., Tunick, M.H. (Editors). ACS Symposium Series 931. American Chemical Society, Washington D.C. ACS Symposium. 167-183
Bacterial Activities of Plant Essential Oils and Their Components Against Escherichia Coli O157:h7 and Salmonella Enterica in Apple Juice - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Friedman, M., Henika, P.R., Levin, C.E., Mandrell, R.E. 2004. Bacterial activities of plant essential oils and their components against escherichia coli O157:H7 and salmonella enterica in apple juice. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 52(19):6042-6048.
Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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