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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Thomas J. Trout

Research Leader

Thomas Trout Dr. Thomas Trout
Research Leader and Supervisory Agricultural Engineer


Water Management Research Unit
2150 Centre Avenue, Bldg D, Suite 320
Fort Collins, CO 80526

PHONE: (970) 492-7419
FAX: (970) 492-7408


Degrees   Research   Publications


Ph.D. Agricultural Engineering (Soil and Water) 1979 Colorado State University
M.S. Agricultural Engineering (Soil and Water) 1975 Colorado State University
B.S. Mechanical Engineering 1972 Case Western Reserve University

Research Areas:

  General research area is soil and water management in irrigated farming systems. Specific research emphases include irrigation scheduling, remote sensing of crop water requirements, deficit irrigation practices, engineering efficient surface and micro-irrigation systems; soil, water, and management factors that affect infiltration rates and water distribution uniformity under irrigation; determining crop water requirements and good irrigation practices for horticultural crops; modeling and reducing irrigation-induced erosion; reducing energy use in micro-irrigation systems; and developing systems and management practices to apply soil fumigants through drip irrigation systems.



Lopez-Urrea, R., A. Montoro, T.J. Trout. 2014. Consumptive water use and crop coefficients of irrigated sunflower. Irr Sci. 32:99-109.

Saseendran, S.A., L.R. Ahuja, L Ma, D.C. Nielsen, T.J. Trout, A.A. Andales, J.L. Chavez, and J. Ham. 2014. Enhancing the water stress factors for simulation of corn in RZWQM2. Agron. J. 106:1-14.

Nelson, S.D., H.A. Ajwa, T. Trout, M. Stromberger, S.R. Yates, S. Sharma. 2013. Water and Methyl Isothiocyanate distribution in soil after drip fumigation. J Env. Qual.

Taghvaeian, S., J.L. Chavez, W.C. Bausch, K.C. DeJonge, T.J. Trout. 2013. Minimizing instrumentation requirement for estimating crop water stress index and transpiration of maize. Irr. Sci.

Anothai, J., C.M.T. Soler, A. Green, T.J. Trout, G. Hoogenboom. 2013. Evaluation of Two Evapotranspiration Approaches Simulated with the CSM-CERES-Maize Model under Different Irrigation Strategies and the Impact on Maize Growth, Development and Soil Moisture Content for Semi-arid Conditions. Agri. And Forest Meteorology 176(2013):64-76.

Ma, L, L.R. Ahuja, B.T. Nolan, R.W. Malone, and T.J. Trout. 2012. Root zone water quality model (RZWQM2): Model use, calibration, and validation. Trans of the ASABE. 55(4): 1425-1446.

Melton, F.S., L.F. Johnson, C.P. Lund, L.L. Pierce, A.R. Michaelis, S.H. Hiatt, A. Guzman, D.D. Adhikari, A.J. Purdy, C. Rosevelt, P. Voltava, T.J. Trout, D. Temesgen, K. Frame, E.J. Sheffner, and R.R. Nemani. 2012. Satellite Irrigation Management Support with the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System: A Framework for Integration of Satellite and Surface Observations to support Improvements in Agricultural Water Resource Management. IEEE J. of Selected Topics in App. Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 5(6): 1709 – 1721.

Islam, A., L.R. Ahuja, L.A. Garcia, L. Ma, S. Anapalli, and T.J. Trout. 2012. Modeling the Impacts of Climate Change on Irrigated Corn Production in the Central Great Plains Agricultural Water Management. Agri. Water Man. 110:94-108.

Johnson, L.F. and T.J. Trout. 2012. Satellite-assisted monitoring of vegetable crop evapotranspiration in California’s San Joaquin valley. Remote Sens. 4: 439-455.

Ma, L, T.J. Trout, L.R. Ahuja, W.C. Bausch, S.A. Saseendran R.W. Malone and D.C. Nielsen. 2012. Calibrating RZWQM2 model for maize responses to deficit irrigation. Agri. Water Man. 103(1):140-149.

Bausch, W.C., T.J. Trout, G.W. Buchleiter. 2011. Evapotranspiration adjustments for deficit irrigated corn using canopy temperature: A concept. J. Irrigation and Drainage. 60: 682-693.

Bryla, D.R., T.J. Trout, and J.E .Ayars. 2010. Weighing Lysimeters for Developing Crop Coefficients and Efficient Irrigation Practices for Vegetable Crops. HortSci 45(11):1597-1604.

Skaggs, T.H., T.J. Trout, and Y Rothfuss. 2010. Drip Irrigation Water Distribution Patterns: Effects of Emitter Rate, Pulsing, and Antecedent Water. Soil Sci Soc. Am J. 74(6):1886-1896.

Qin, Ruijun, S. Gao, H. Ajwa, B.D. Hanson, T.J. Trout, D. Wang, M. Guo. 2009. Interactive Effect of Organic Amendment and Environmental Factors on Degradation of 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin in Soil. J. Agri. Food Chem. 57:9063-9070.

Gao, Suduan, R.Qin, B.A. Hanson, N.Tharayil, T.J. Trout, D. Wang and J. Gerik. 2009. Effects of Manure and Water Applications on 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin Emission in a Field Trial. J. Agr. Food Chem. 57:5428-5434.

Schneider, S.M., B.D. Hanson, J.S. Gerik, A. Shrethra, T.J. Trout and S. Gao. 2009. Comparison of shank- and drip-applied Methyl Bromide alternative in perennial crop field nurseries. Hort Technology 19(2):331-338.

Qin, R., S. Gao, D. Wang, B.D. Hanson, T. J. Trout, and H. Ajwa. 2009. Relative effect of soil moisture on emissions and distribution of 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin in soil columns. Atmospheric Environment. 43:2449-2455.

Shrethra, A., G.T. Browne, B.D. Lampinen, S.M. Schneider, and T.J. Trout. 2009. Weed community composition in tree fruit nurseries treated with methyl bromide and alternative fumigants. Intern’l J. of Fruit Science. 9(1):78-91.

McDonald, J.A., S. Gao, R. Qin, B.D. Hanson, T.J. Trout, and D. Wang. 2009. Effect of water seal on reducing 1,3-Dichloropropene emissions from different textured soils. J. Envir. Quality. 38:712-718.

Gao, S., R. Qin, J. McDonald, B.D. Hanson, and T.J. Trout. 2008. Field test of surface seals and soil treatments to reduce fumigant emissions from shank-injections of Telone C35. Science of the Total Environment. 405:206-214.

Schneider, S.M., H.A. Ajwa, T.J. Trout and S .Gao. 2008. Nematode Control from Shank- and Drip-applied Fumigant Alternatives. HortScience 43(6):1826-1832.

Mazahrih, N.T.I., N. Katbeh-Bader, S.R. Evett, J.E. Ayars, and T.J. Trout. 2008. Field calibration accuracy and utility for four down-hole water content sensors. Vadose Zone J. 7(3):992-1000.

Saseendran S. A., L. R. Ahuja*, D. C. Nielsen, T. Trout, and L. Ma. 2008. Use of Crop Simulation Models to Evaluate Limited Irrigation Management Options for Corn in a Semi-arid Environment. Water Resour. Res., 44:W00E02.

Shrethra, A., G.T. Browne, B.D. Lampinen, S. Schneider, L. Simon, T. Trout. 2008. Perennial crop nurseries treated with methyl bromide and alternative fumigants: Effects on weed seed viability, weed densities, and time required for hand weeding. Weed Technology 22:267-274.

McDonald, J.A., S. Gao, R.Q. Qin, T.J. Trout, and B.D. Hanson. 2008. Thiosulfate and Manure Amendment with Water Application and Tarp on 1,3-Dichloropropene Emission Reduction. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42(2), 398–402, 2008.

Trout, T.J. , L.F. Johnson, and J. Gartung. 2008. Remote sensing of canopy cover in horticultural crops. HortScience 43(2):333-337.

Gao, S., T.J. Trout, and S. Schneider. 2008. Evaluation of Fumigation and Surface Seal Methods on Fumigant Emissions in an Orchard Replant Field. J. Env. Quality 37:369-377.

Qin, R., S. Gao, B.D. Hanson, J.A. McDonald, T.J. Trout, and H.A. Ajwa. 2007. The Effect of Drip Application of Ammonium Thiosulfate on Fumigant Degradation in Soil Columns. J. of Ag. and Food Chem. 55:8193-8199.

Sojka, R.E., D.L. Bjorneberg, T.J. Trout, T.S. Strelkoff, M.A Nearing. 2007. The Importance and Challenge of Modeling Irrigation-Induced Erosion. J.Soil Water Cons. 62(3):153-161.

Vaughan, P.J., T.J. Trout, and J.E. Ayars. 2007. A processing method for weighing lysimeter data and comparison to micrometeorological ETo predictions. Agri. Water Management 88:141-146.

Trout. T.J. , K.O. Eggleston, and D.D. Steele. 2007. Environmental Considerations. Ch 4 In Hoffman, G.J., R.G. Evans, M.E. Jensen, D.L. Martin and R.L. Elliott. Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation Systems. 2nd Edition. ASABE Special Monograph. ASABE: St. Joseph, Michigan pp 76-107. (Monograph Chapter)

Trout, T.J. and D.C. Kincaid. 2007. On farm system design and operation and land management. In: Lascano, R.J. and R.E. Sojka (eds). Irrigation of Agricultural Crops. Am. Soc. of Agronomy Monograph #30, 2nd Ed. Am. Soc. Agronomy, Madison, WI. pp 133-180. (Monograph Chapter)

Gao, S. and T.J. Trout. 2007. Surface Seals Reduce 1,3-Dichloropropene and Chloropicrin Emissions in Field Plots. J. Env. Quality. 36:110-119.

Schneider, S.M., H. Ajwa, and T.J. Trout. 2006. Chemical alternatives to methyl bromide for nematode control under vineyard replant conditions. Am J. of Enology and Viticulture. 57(2):183-193.

Gao, S and T.J. Trout. 2006. Surface water applications reduce 1,3-dichloropropene emissions from soil fumigation. J. Env. Quality. 35:1040 – 1048.

Ajwa, H.A. and T.J. Trout. 2006. Polyacrylamide and water quality effects on infiltration in sandy loam soils. Soil Science Soc. Am. Journal 70:643-650.

Bryla, D.R., E. Dickson, R. Shenk, R. S. Johnson, C.H. Crisosto, and T.J. Trout. 2005. Influence of irrigation method and scheduling on patterns of soil and tree water status and its relation to yield and fruit quality in peach. J. Am Soc. Hort. Science 40(7):2118-2124.

Williams, L.E. and T.J. Trout. 2005. Relationships among vine- and soil-based measures of water status in a Thompson Seedless vineyard in response to high-frequency drip irrigation. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 56(4):357-366.

Stromberger, M.E., S. Klose, H. Ajwa, T. Trout, and S. Fennimore. 2005. Microbial populations and enzyme activities in soils fumigated with methyl bromide alternatives. Soil Science Soc. Am Jour. 69:1987-1999.

Johnson, R.S. L.E. Williams, J.E. Ayars, T.J. Trout. 2005. Weighing Lysimeters for Studying Tree and Vine Water Relations. California Agriculture 59(2):133-136.

Skaggs, T.H., T.J. Trout, J. Simunek, P.J. Shouse. 2004. Comparison of HYDRUS-2D simulations of drip irrigation with experimental observations. J. Irrig. and Drainage Engr. 130(4):304-310.

Ajwa, H.A. and T.J. Trout. 2004. Drip Application of alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for strawberry productions in California. Hort Science 39(7): 1707-1715.

Ayars, J.E., R.S. Johnson, C.J. Phene, T.J. Trout, D.A. Clark, R.M. Mead. 2003. Water use by drip irrigated late season peaches. Irrigation Science 22:187-194.

Bryla, D.R., T.J. Trout, R.S. Johnson, and J.E. Ayars. 2003. Irrigation management practices for maximizing growth and improving crop water use efficiency in young peach trees. Hort Science 38(6):1112-1116.

Kincaid, D.C. and T.J. Trout. 2003. Fluid pressure measurement by mechanical compression of thin-walled tubing. U.S. Patent #6,622,565. (Patent).

Williams, L.E., C.J. Phene, D.W. Grimes, and T.J. Trout. 2003. Water use of mature Thompson Seedless grapevines in California. Irrigation Science. 22(1):11-18.

Williams, L.E., C.J. Phene, D.W. Grimes, and T.J. Trout. 2003. Water use of young Thompson Seedless grapevines in California. Irrigation Science. 22(1):1-9.

Kincaid, D.C. and T.J. Trout. 2002. Squeezer: a device for indirect pressure measurement in thin-wall drip irrigation tubing. Appl. Engr. in Agri. 18(6):685-690.

Ajwa, H.A., T. Trout, J. Mueller, S. Wilhelm, S.D. Nelson, R. Soppe, and D. Shatley. 2002. Application of alternative fumigants through drip irrigation systems. Phytopathology 92(12):1349-1355.

Carpenter, Janet, Lori Lynch, and Tom Trout. 2001. Township limits on 1,3-D will impact adjustment to methyl bromide phase-out. California Agriculture 55(3):12-18.

Hanson, B.R. and T.J. Trout. 2001. Irrigated agriculture and water quality impacts. In: Ritter, W.F. and A. Shirmohammadi. (Eds). Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton. pp. 169-206. (Book Chapter)

Trout, Thomas J. 2001. Sediment Transport in Irrigation Furrows. In: Stott, D.E., R.H. Mohtar, and G.C. Steinhardt (eds). Sustaining The Global Farm: Selected papers from the 1999 Intern’l Soil Conservation Org. meeting. W. Lafayette, IN., May 24-29, 1999. pp 710-716. (Peer reviewed Proceedings).

Johnson, R.S., J. Ayars, T. Trout. 2000. Crop coefficients for mature peach trees are well correlated with mid-day canopy light interception. Acta Horticultura. 537:455-460.

Bjorneberg, D.L., D.C. Kincaid, R.D. Lentz, R.E. Sojka, and T.J. Trout. 2000. Unique aspects of modeling irrigation-induced soil erosion. International Journal of Sediment Research. 15(2):245-252.

Trout, T.J. 2000. Environmental effects of irrigated agriculture. In: Ferreira, M.I. (Ed). Proc. of the 3rd Intern’l Symp. on Irrigation of Horticultural Crops. Estoril, Portugal, June 28 - July 2, 1999. Acta Horticulturae 537. pp. 605-610.

Bjorneberg, D.L., T.J. Trout, R.E. Sojka, and J.K. Aase. Evaluating WEPP Predicted Infiltration, Runoff, and Soil Erosion for Furrow Irrigation. Trans. ASAE 42(6):1733-1741. 1999.

Pereira, L.S. and T.J. Trout. Irrigation Methods. Chapter I.5.4 In Hubert N. van Leir, (ed.) CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. pp. 297-380. 1999. (Monograph Chapter)

Sojka, R.E., R.D. Lentz, C.W. Ross, T.J. Trout, D.L. Bjorneberg, and J.K. Aase. Polyacrylamide effects on infiltration in irrigated agriculture. J. Soil and Water Conservation. 53(4):325-331. 1998.

Trout, Thomas. The impact of irrigated agriculture. J. Soil and Water Conservation (53(4):298. 1998. (Guest editorial)

Trout, T.J. Furrow irrigation erosion and sedimentation: On-field distribution. Trans of the ASAE 39(5):1717-1723. 1996.

Trout, T.J. , R.E. Sojka, and R.D. Lentz. Polyacrylamide effect on furrow erosion and infiltration. Trans. ASAE 38(3):761-765. 1995

Trout, T.J. , D.C. Kincaid, and D.T. Westermann. Comparison of Russet Burbank yield and quality under furrow and sprinkler irrigation. Am Potato J. 71:15-28. 1994.

Kincaid, D.C., D.T. Westermann, and T.J. Trout. Irrigation and soil temperature effects on Russet Burbank quality. Am Potato J. 70:711-723. 1993.

Trout, T.J. and D.C. Kincaid. Cablegation evaluation methodology. App. Engr. in Agri. 9(6):523-528. 1993.

Koluvec, P.K., K.K. Tanji, and T.J. Trout. Soil erosion from irrigation - an overview. J. of Irrig. and Drainage Engr., ASCE 119(6) 929-946. 1993.

Trout, T.J. and W.H. Neibling. Erosion and sedimentation processes on irrigated fields. J. of Irrig. and Drainage Engr., ASCE 119(6):947-963. 1993.

Trout, T.J. Flow velocity and wetted perimeter effect on furrow infiltration. Trans. ASAE 35(3):855-863. 1992.

Trout, T.J. Furrow flow velocity effect on hydraulic roughness. J. of Irrig. and Drainage Engr., ASCE. 118(6):981-987. 1992.

Trout, T.J. Furrow geometric parameters. J. of Irrig. and Drain. Engr., ASCE. 117(5):613-634. 1991.

Segeren, A.G. and T.J. Trout. Hydraulic resistance of soil surface seals in irrigated furrows. Soil Sci. Soc. America J. 55(3):640-646. 1991.

Trout, T.J. , R.E. Sojka, and L.I. Okafor. Soil Management. Ch. 23, pp. 873-896. In G. Hoffman, T. Howell, and K. Soloman (eds.). Managment of Farm Irrigation Systems. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI. 1991. (Monograph Chapter)

Trout, T.J. Surface seal influence on surge flow furrow infiltration. Trans. ASAE 33(5):1583-1589. 1990.

Trout, T.J. Furrow inflow and infiltration variability impacts on irrigation management. Trans. ASAE 33(4):1171-1178. 1990.

Trout, T.J. and G.S. Johnson. Earthworms and furrow irrigation management. Trans. ASAE 32(5):1594-1598. 1989.

Trout, T.J. and D.C. Kincaid. Border cablegation system design. Trans. ASAE 32(4):1185-1192. 1989.

Kemper, W. D., T. J. Trout, and A. S. Humpherys. Mechanisms by which surge irrigation reduces furrow infiltration rates in a silty loam soil. Trans. ASAE 31(3):821-829. 1988.

Trout, T. J. and B. E. Mackey. Furrow inflow and infiltration variability. Trans. ASAE 31(2):531-537. 1988.

Trout, T. J. and B. E. Mackey. Furrow flow measurement accuracy. J. of Irrig. and Drainage Engr., ASCE 114(2):244-255. 1988.

Trout, T. J. and B. E. Mackey. Inflow-outflow infiltration measurement accuracy. J. of Irrig. and Drainage Engr., ASCE 114(2):256-265. 1988.

Brown, M. J., W. D. Kemper, T. J. Trout, and A. S. Humpherys. Sediment, erosion, and water intake in furrows. Irrigation Science 9:45-55. 1987.

Kemper, W. D., T. J. Trout, Antone Segeren, and Murray Bullock. Worms and Water. J. Soil & Water Consv. 42(6):401-404. 1987.

Kemper, W. D., T. J. Trout, and D. C. Kincaid. Cablegation: automated supply for surface irrigation. In Advances in Irrigation. D. Hillel, (ed.) Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, Vol. 4, pp. 1-66. 1987. (Book Chapter)

Kemper, W. D., J. A. Bondurant, and T. J. Trout. Irrigation trash screens pay. J. Soil and Water Cons. 41(1):17-20. 1986.

Trout, T. J. Pressure sensor configurations for open channel flow recorders. Applied Engr. in Agr. 2(2):129-132. 1986.

Trout, T. J. Orifice plates for furrow flow measurement: Part II - Design and field use. Trans. ASAE 29(1):107-111. 1986.

Trout, T. J. Orifice plates for furrow flow measurement: Part I - Calibration. Trans. ASAE 29(1):103-106. 1986.

Kemper, W. D., T. J. Trout, M. J. Brown, and R. C. Rosenau. Furrow erosion and water and soil management. Trans. ASAE 28(5):1564-1572. 1985.

Humpherys, A. S., M. D. Wilson, and T. J. Trout. Electronic clocks for timing irrigation advance. ASCE Jour. Irrig. Drain. Engr. 111(1):94-98. 1985. (technical note)

Trout, T. J. Measurement device effect on channel water loss. J. of the Irr. Drain. Div., ASCE. 109(1):60-70. 1983.

Trout, T. J. Channel design to minimize lining material costs. J. of the Irr. Drain. Div., ASCE. 108(IR4):242-249. 1982.

Trout, T. J. and S. A. Bowers. Operational evaluation of village level irrigation conveyance systems. Trans. ASAE 24(3):636-642. 1981.

Trout, T. J. Factors affecting losses from Indus Basin irrigation channels. Water Management Technical Report No. 50, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 201 pp. 1979. (Ph.D. Thesis and project report)

Smith, J. L., D. B. McWhorter, and T. J. Trout. Mass balance monitoring of land application sites for wastewater residuals. Trans. ASAE 20(2):309-312. 1977.

Trout, T. J. , J. L. Smith, and D. B. McWhorter. Environmental effects of land application of anaerobically digested municipal sludge. Trans. ASAE 19(2):226-270. 1976.

Trout, T. J. Environmental effects of land application of digested municipal sewage sludge. 125 pp. 1976. (M.S. Thesis and project report.)

Last Modified: 5/28/2014
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