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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Lloyd O Billey
Animal Metabolism-Agricultural Chemicals Research
Biological Science Lab Technician (Biochemistry)

Phone: (701) 239-1409
Fax: (701) 239-1430
USDA,ARS,BRL
1605 ALBRECHT BLVD N
FARGO, ND, 58102-2765


Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
E-Screen - potential tool for assessment of relative serum estrogenicity - (Abstract Only) - (17-Mar-13)
Bioassay of estrogenicity and chemical analysis of estrogens in streams across the United States associated with livestock operations Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Alvarez, D.A., Shappell, N.W., Billey, L.O., Bermudez, D.S., Wilson, V.S., Kolpin, D.W., Perkins, S.D., Evans, N., Foreman, W.T., Gray, J.L., Shipitalo, M.J., Meyer, M.T. 2013. Bioassay of estrogenicity and chemical analysis of estrogens in streams across the United States associated with livestock operations. Water Research. 47:3347-3363.
Comparing biological effects of estrone (E1) and 17ß-estradiol (E2) in mature fathead minnows - (Abstract Only)
Dammann, A.A., Shappell, N.W., Billey, L.O., Bartell, S.E., Schoenfuss, H.L. 2011. Comparing biological effects of estrone (E1) and 17B-estradiol (E2) in mature fathead minnows. Joint Meeting of the Midwest Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the Chicago Regional Chapter of Society for Risk Analysis, March 23-24, 2011, Lake Geneva, WI.
Estrogenic Activity in Runoff – Effect of Animal Waste-Based Fertilizer Application to Frozen Fields - (Abstract Only)
Billey, L.O., Shipitalo, M.J., Owens, L.B., Shappell, N.W. 2010. Estrogenic activity in runoff – effect of animal waste-based fertilizer application to frozen fields. Midwest Chapter Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Abstracts, March 24-26, 2010, St. Paul, MN. Available:http://www.midwestsetac.org/2010%20abstracts/Estrogenic%20activity%20in%20runoff%20–%20effect%20of%20animal%20waste-based%20fertilizer%20application%20to%20frozen%fields, %20Billey.pdf.
Estrogenic Activity and Estrogens of Surface Waters in Proximity to a Large Dairy - (Abstract Only)
Shappell, N.W., Billey, L.O., Elder, K.H. 2009. Estrogenic Activity and Estrogens of Surface Waters in Proximity to a Large Dairy. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)Abstract Book, New Orleans, LA, November 19-23, 2009. Abstract 31, page 11.
Destruction of estrogens using Fe-TAML/peroxide catalysis - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shappell, N.W., Vrabel, M.A., Madsen, P.J., Harrington, G.E., Billey, L.O., Hakk, H., Larsen, G.L., Beach, E.S., Horwitz, C.P., Ro, K.S., Hunt, P.G., Collins, T.J. 2008. Destruction of estrogens using Fe-TAML/peroxide catalysis. Environmental Science and Technology 42:1296-1300.
Estrogenic Activity and Steroid Hormones in Swine Wastewater Processed Through a Lagoon Constructed-Wetland System. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shappell, N.W., Billey, L.O., Forbes, D., Poach, M.E., Matheny, T.A., Reddy, G.B., Hunt, P.G. 2007. Estrogenic activity and steroid hormones in swine wastewater processed through a lagoon constructed-wetland system.. Environmental Science and Technology 41(2):444-450.
Estrogenic Activity of Swine Wastewater Treated by a Lagoon Constructed Wetland System. - (Abstract Only)
Shappell, N.W., Billey, L.O., Poach, M.E., Matheny, T.A., Reddy, G.B., Hunt, P.G. 2005. Estrogenic activity of swine wastewater treated by a lagoon constructed wetland system. SETAC North American 26th Annual Conference, Baltimore, MD, Nov. 13-17, 2005.
Assessment of Tasco and Ycwp on Ergovaline Toxicity in Caco-2 Cells. - (Abstract Only)
Shappell, N.W., Billey, L.O. 2004. Assessment of tasco and ycwp on ergovaline toxicity in caco-2 cells. [abstract] Joint Meeting of American Society of Animal Science, American Dairy Science Association, and Poultry Science Association, St. Louis, MO, July 25-29, 2004, Journal of Animal Science 82(Suppl 1):181, Abstract T72.
Effect of Clenbuterol on Body Stores of Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (Pcdfs) and Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (Pcdds) in Rats - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Shappell, N.W., Billey, L.O., Feil, V.J. 2002. Effect of clenbuterol on body stores of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in rats. Journal of Animal Science. 80:2461-2475.
Effect of Clenbuterol on Fat Stores of Dioxins and Furans in Rats. - (Proceedings)
Shappell, N.W., Billey, L.O., Feil, V.J. 2001. Effect of clenbuterol on fat stores of dioxins and furans in rats. Organohalogen Compounds. 53:460-463.
ARS News Articles
Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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