Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Dale R. Gardner

Research Chemist


Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
A study on embryonic death in goats due to Nicotiana glauca ingestion - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R. 2014. A study on embryonic death in goats due to Nicotiana glauca ingestion. Toxicon. 90:64-69.
Studies on the teratogenicity of anabasine in a rat model - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Knoppel, E.L., Green, B.T., Hammond, C.K., Hammond, Z.J., Pfister, J.A. 2014. Studies on the teratogenicity of anabasine in a rat model. Toxicon. 87:32-37.
Secondary compounds in floral rewards of toxic rangeland plants: Impacts on pollinators - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Irwin, R.E., Cook, D., Richardson, L.L., Manson, J.S., Gardner, D.R. 2014. Secondary compounds in floral rewards of toxic rangeland plants: Impacts on pollinators. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(30):7335-7344.
Swainsonine-containing plants and their relationship to endophytic fungi - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A. 2014. Swainsonine-containing plants and their relationship to endophytic fungi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(30):7326-7334.
Cyclopamine: From cyclops lambs to cancer treatment - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Garrossian, M., Chang, C.T. 2014. Cyclopamine: From cyclops lambs to cancer treatment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(30):7355-7362.
Teratogenic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora in a rat model and possible role of N-methyl and N,N-dimethyltryptamine - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gardner, D.R., Riet-Correa, F., Lemos, D., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2014. Teratogenic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora in a rat model and possible role of N-methyl and N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(30):7398-7401.
Profiling of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in herbarium-preserved specimens of Amsinckia species using HPLC-esi(+)MS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Colegate, S.M., Welsh, S.L., Gardner, D.R., Betz, J.M., Panter, K.E. 2014. Profiling of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in herbarium-preserved specimens of Amsinckia species using HPLC-esi(+)MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(30):7382-7392.
If one plant toxin is harmful to livestock, what about two? - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D. 2014. If one plant toxin is harmful to livestock, what about two? Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(30):7363-7369.
Semi-automated separation of the epimeric dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine and intermedine: Preparation of their N-oxides and NMR comparison with diastereoisomeric rinderine and echinatine - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (02-Feb-14)
Mitigation of larkspur poisoning on rangelands through the selection of cattle - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Chitko-Mckown, C.G., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E. 2014. Mitigation of larkspur poisoning on rangelands through the selection of cattle. Rangelands. 36(1):10-15.
Detection of toxic monofluoroacetate in Palicourea species - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Taylor, C.M., Bassuner, B., Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R. 2014. Detection of toxic monofluoroacetate in Palicourea species. Toxicon. 80:9-16.
The effect of low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) co-administration on the acute toxicity of death camas (Zigadenus spp.) in sheep Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Gardner, D.R., Stonecipher, C.A., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D. 2013. The effect of low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) co-administration on the acute toxicity of death camas (Zigadenus spp.) in sheep. Toxicon. 76:50-58.
Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endophyte in the host Swainsona canescens - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Grum, D.S., Cook, D., Baucom, D., Mott, I.W., Gardner, D.R., Creamer, R., Allen, J.G. 2013. Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endophyte in the host Swainsona canescens. Journal of Natural Products. 76(10):1984-1988.
Conditioning food aversions to Ipomoea carnea in sheep - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (28-Aug-13)
Early season grazing by cattle of waxy larkspur (Delphinium glaucescens) in Central Idaho - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Baker, S.D. 2013. Early season grazing by cattle of waxy larkspur (Delphinium glaucescens) in Central Idaho. Rangelands. 35(4):2-5.
Detección de compuestos inductores de aborto en acículas de enebro (Juniperus communis) y suero de vacas abortadas en los montes de la Rioja - (Trade Journal)
Brieva, J., Atxaerandio, R., Gomez, N., Minguijon, E., Gardner, D.R. 2013. Detección de compuestos inductores de aborto en acículas de enebro (Juniperus communis) y suero de vacas abortadas en los montes de la Rioja. Electronic Publication. 100:18-20.
Direct and pollinator-mediated effects of nectar alkaloids on Delphinium barbeyi - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Manson, J.S., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Irwin, R.E. 2013. Direct and pollinator-mediated effects of nectar alkaloids on Delphinium barbeyi. Journal of Ecology. 1001:1604-1612.
Doença de depósito lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Ipomoea verbascoidea (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos no semiárido de Pernambuco - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lima, D.D., Albuquerque, R.F., Rocha, B.P., Barros, M.E., Gardner, D.R., Medeiros, R.M., Correa-Riet, F., Mendonca, F.S. 2013. Doença de depósito lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Ipomoea verbascoidea (Convolvulaceae) em caprinos no semiárido de Pernambuco. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 33(7): 867-72.
Biosynthesis of natural products in plants by fungal endophytes with an emphasis on swainsonine - (Book / Chapter) - (01-May-13)
A toxicokinetic comparison of two species of low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T. 2013. A toxicokinetic comparison of two species of low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle. Research in Veterinary Science. 95(2):612-615.
The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on motor coordination in mice treated with methyllcaconitine and anabasine - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Green, B.T., Panter, K.E. 2013. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on motor coordination in mice treated with methyllcaconitine and anabasine. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 33(9):1017-26.
Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endosymbiont of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales in the host Ipomoea carnea. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Beaulieu, W.T., Mott, I.W., Grum, D.S., Riet-Correa, F., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Clay, J., Marcolongo-Pereira, C. 2013. Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endosymbiont of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales in the host Ipomoea carnea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 61: 3797-803.
Alkaloid profiles of Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophllum gypsophilum, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Styphnolobium affine, and Styphnolobium japonicum previously classified as Sophora species Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R. 2013. Alkaloid profiles of Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophllum gypsophilum, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Styphnolobium affine, and Styphnolobium japonicum previously classified as Sophora species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 49:87-93.
Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of y-Coniceine and N-Methylconiine enantiomers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Jordan, G.T., Zhang, Q., Panter, K.E., Hughes, D., Cheng-Wei, T.C., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R. 2013. Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of y-Coniceine and N-Methylconiine enantiomers. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 23:616-21.
A comparison of the abortifacient risk of western juniper trees in Oregon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Parsons, C., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2013. A comparison of the abortifacient risk of western juniper trees in Oregon. Rangelands. 35(1):40-4.
The alkaloid profiles of Sophora nuttalliana and Sophora stenophylla - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J., Marcolongo-Pereira, C., Stonecipher, C.A., Gardner, D.R. 2013. The alkaloid profiles of Sophora nuttalliana and Sophora stenophylla. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 48: 58-64.
Ptaquiloside reduces NK cell activities by enhancing metallothionein expression, which is prevented by selenium - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Latorre, A.O., Caniceiro, B.D., Fukumasu, H., Gardner, D.R., Lopes, F.M., Wyospchi Jr, H.L., Da Silva, T.C., Haraguchi, M., Bressan, F.F., Gorniak, S.L. 2013. Ptaquiloside reduces NK cell activities by enhancing metallothionein expression, which is prevented by selenium. Toxicology. 304:100-108.
Effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Lima, F.G., Green, B.T., Gardner, D.R. 2013. Effect of a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists and antagonists on motor function in mice. Journal of Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 266(3): 366-74.
Norditerpene alkaloid concentrations in tissues and floral rewards of larkspurs and impacts on pollinators - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Manson, J.S., Gardner, D.R., Welch, K.D., Irwin, R.E. 2013. Norditerpene alkaloid concentrations in tissues and floral rewards of larkspurs and impacts on pollinators. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 48: 123-31.
The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the acute toxicosis of methyllycaconitine in mice. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R. 2013. The role of the a7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in the acute toxicosis of methyllycaconitine in mice. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 33(9):1011-6.
Identification of a lycopsamine-N-oxide chemotype of Amsinckia intermedia - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Colegate, S.M., Gardner, D.R., Davis, T.Z., Welsh, S.L., Betz, J.M., Panter, K.E. 2013. Identification of a lycopsamine-N-oxide chemotype of Amsinckia intermedia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 48: 132-5.
Influence of endophyte genotype on swainsonine concentrations in Oxytropis sericea Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Grum, D.S., Gardner, D.R., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A. 2013. Influence of endophyte genotype on swainsonine concentrations in Oxytropis sericea. Toxicon. 61:105-11.
Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Cryptantha species: Including two new open chain diesters one of which is amphoteric - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Colegate, S.M., Gardner, D.R., Davis, T.Z., Betz, J.M., Panter, K.E. 2013. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Cryptantha species: Including two new open chain diesters one of which is amphoteric. Phytochemical Analysis. 24: 201-12.
Influence of seed endophyte amounts on swainsonine concentrations in Astragalus and Oxytropis locoweeds Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Grum, D.S., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Roper, J.M., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H. 2012. Influence of seed endophyte amounts on swainsonine concentrations in Astragalus and Oxytropis locoweeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 66(33): 8083-9.
Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum form the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (01-Jul-12)
Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum from the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gao, X., Cook, D., Ralphs, M., Yan, L., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Han, B., Zhao, M. 2012. Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum from the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 45: 79-85.
A comparison of the metabolism of the abortifacient compounds from Ponderosa Pine needles in conditioned versus naive cattle Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Zieglar, J., Hall, J. 2012. A comparison of the metabolism of the abortifacient compounds from Ponderosa Pine needles in conditioned versus naive cattle. Journal of Animal Science. 90(12): 4611-7.
Veratrum-induced placental dysplasia in sheep - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Cook, D. 2012. Veratrum-induced placental dysplasia in sheep. International Journal of Poisonous Plant Research. 2:54-62.
Detection of monofluoroacetate in Palicourea and Amorimia species Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J.A., Anderson, W.R., Lima, F.G., Gardner, D.R. 2012. Detection of monofluoroacetate in Palicourea and Amorimia species. Toxicon. 60(5): 791-6.
Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lima, E.F., Riet-Correa, F., Gardner, D.R., Barros, S.S., Medeiros, R.M., Soares, M.P., Riet-Correa, G. 2012. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses. Toxicon. 60: 324-8.
Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun') - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Colegate, S.M., Gardner, D.R., Joy, R.J., Betz, J.M., Panter, K.E. 2012. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, including monoesters with an unusual esterifying acid, from cultivated Crotalaria juncea (Sunn Hemp cv. 'Tropic Sun'). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60: 3541-50.
Development of a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the hedgehog inhibitors cyclopamine and cyclopamine-KAAD - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Zhang, J., Change, C.T. 2012. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the hedgehog inhibitors cyclopamine and cyclopamine-KAAD. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 66: 282-6.
Seasonal changes in Undifilum colonization and swainsonine content of locoweeds - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bottger, J.A., Creamer, R., Gardner, D.R. 2012. Seasonal changes in Undifilum colonization and swainsonine content of locoweeds. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 38:486-95.
Poisonous Plants of the United States Reprint Icon - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Davis, T.Z., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2012. Poisonous Plants of the United States. In: Guptra, R.C., editor. Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles. 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Academic Press. p. 1031-79.
The good and the bad of poisonous plants: An introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2012. The good and the bad of poisonous plants: An introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 8(2): 153-9.
Influence of phenological stage on swainsonine concentrations and endophyte amounts in Oxytropis sericea - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Shi, L., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Grum, D.S., Welch, K.D., Ralphs, M.H. 2012. Influence of phenological stage on swainsonine concentrations and endophyte amounts in Oxytropis sericea. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 38(2): 195-203.
The effect of 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine-type diterpenoid alkaloids on the toxicity of tall larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Gardner, D.R., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2012. The effect of 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine-type diterpenoid alkaloids on the toxicity of tall larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle. Journal of Animal Science. 90(7): 2394-401.
Alpha-mannosidosis in goats caused by the swainsonine-containing plant Ipomoea verbascoidea Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Mendonca, F.S., Albuquerque, R.F., Evencio-Neto, J., Freitas, S.H., Doria, R.G., Boabaid, F.M., Driemeier, D., Gardner, D.R., Riet-Correa, F., Colodel, E.M. 2012. Alpha-mannosidosis in goats caused by the swainsonine-containing plant Ipomoea verbascoidea. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 24(1): 90-5.
Toxicokinetics of norditerpenoid alkaloids from low larkspur (Delphinium andersonii) orally administered in cattle Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Panter, K.E. 2012. Toxicokinetics of norditerpenoid alkaloids from low larkspur (Delphinium andersonii) orally administered in cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 73(8): 1318-24.
Using gas chromatography to determine winter diets of sage-grouse in Utah. Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Thacker, E.T., Gardner, D.R., Messmer, T.A., Guttery, M., Dahlgren, D.K. 2011. Using gas chromatography to determine winter diets of sage-grouse in Utah. Journal of Wildlife Management. 76(3):588-592.
Increased antitumor efficacy by the combined administration of swainsonine and cisplatin in vivo - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Santos, F.M., Latorre, A.O., Hueza, I.M., Sanches, D.S., Lippi, L.L., Gardner, D.R., Spinosa, H.S. 2011. Increased antitumor efficacy by the combined administration of swainsonine and cisplatin in vivo. Phytomedicine. 18(12):1096-1101.
Toxicokinetics and pathology of plant-associated acute selenium toxicosis in steers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Davis, T.Z., Stegelmeier, B.L., Panter, K.E., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Hall, J.O. 2012. Toxicokinetics and pathology of plant-associated acute selenium toxicosis in steers. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 24(2): 319-27.
Analysis of the toxic amino acid indospicine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gardner, D.R., Riet-Correa, F. 2011. Analysis of the toxic amino acid indospicine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. International Journal of Poisonous Plant Research. 1(1):20-7.
Potentiation of the actions of acetylcholine, epibatidine, and nicotine by methyllycaconitine at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R. 2011. Potentiation of the actions of acetylcholine, epibatidine, and nicotine by methyllycaconitine at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology. 662(1-3):15-21.
Cattle grazing toxic Delphinium andersonii in South-Central Idaho Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R. 2011. Cattle grazing toxic Delphinium andersonii in South-Central Idaho. Rangeland Ecology and Management. 64(6): 664-8.
Galegine content in Goatsrue (Galega officinalis) varies by plant part and phenological growth stage - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Oldham, M., Ransom, C.V., Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R. 2011. Galegine content in Goatsrue (Galega officinalis) varies by plant part and phenological growth stage. Weed Science. 59(3): 349-52.
Toxic plants - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R. 2011. Toxic plants. In: Gupta, R.C., editor. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. San Diego, CA. Academic Press. p. 689-705.
The effects of methyllycaconitine on the response of TE-671 cells to acetylcholine and epibatidine Reprint Icon - (Abstract Only)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R. 2011. The effects of methyllycaconitine on the response of TE-671 cells to acetylcholine and epibatidine. FASEB Journal. 25: 798.5.
Effect of MDL-type alkaloids on tall larkspur toxicosis - (Book / Chapter)
Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Green, B.T., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z. 2011. Effect of MDL-type alkaloids on tall larkspur toxicosis. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA: CAB International. 94:540-9. DOI: 10.1079/9781845938338.0540.
Toxic plants: Effects on reproduction and fetal and embryonic development in livestock - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R. 2011. Toxic plants: Effects on reproduction and fetal and embryonic development in livestock. In: Gupta, R.C., editor. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. p. 689-704.
Comparison of the toxic effects of two duncecap larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) chemotypes in mice and cattle - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2011. Comparison of the toxic effects of two duncecap larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) chemotypes in mice and cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 72(5):706-14.
Transmission of the locoweed endophyte to the next generation of plants - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Grum, D.S. 2011. Transmission of the locoweed endophyte to the next generation of plants. Fungal Ecology. 4(4):251-5.
The acute toxicity of the Death camas (Zigadenus spp.) alkaloid zygacine in mice, including the effect of methyllycaconitine co-administration on zygacine toxicity - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D. 2011. The acute toxicity of the Death camas (Zigadenus spp.) alkaloid zygacine in mice, including the effect of methyllycaconitine co-administration on zygacine toxicity. Journal of Animal Science. 89(5):1650-7.
Detection of high levels of pyrrolizidine-N-oxides in the endangered plant cryptantha crassipes (Terlingua creek cat's-eye)using HPLC-ESI-MS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Williams, M.T., Warnock, B.J., Betz, J.M., Beck, J.J., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Colegate, S.M. 2011. Detection of high levels of pyrrolizidine-N-oxides in the endangered plant cryptantha crassipes (Terlingua creek cat's-eye)using HPLC-ESI-MS. Phytochemical Analysis. 22(3): 532-540
Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: A paradigm for human poisoning Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R., Colegate, S.M., Edgar, J.A. 2011. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: A paradigm for human poisoning. Journal of Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A. 28(3): 293-307.
Swainsonine and endophyte relationships in Astragalus mollissimus and Astragalus lentiginosus - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Grum, D.S., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T. 2011. Swainsonine and endophyte relationships in Astragalus mollissimus and Astragalus lentiginosus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(4):1281-7.
Selenium reverses Pteridium aquilinum-induced immunotoxic effects - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Latorre, A.O., Caniceiro, B.D., Wysocki, H.L., Haraguchi, M., Gardner, D.R., Gorniak, S.L. 2011. Selenium reverses Pteridium aquilinum-induced immunotoxic effects. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 49(2):464-70.
Water hemlock poisoning in cattle: Ingestion of immature Cicuta maculata seed as the probable cause Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Welch, K.D., Holstege, D. 2011. Water hemlock poisoning in cattle: Ingestion of immature Cicuta maculata seed as the probable cause. Toxicon. 57(1):157-61. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2010.11.009
Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Parsons, C., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D. 2011. Western juniper-induced abortions in beef cattle. International Journal of Poisonous Plant Research. 1(1):72-9.
Conditioned flavor aversion and location avoidance in hamsters from toxic extract of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) - (Book / Chapter)
Pfister, J.A., Cheney, C.D., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E. 2011. Conditioned flavor aversion and location avoidance in hamsters from toxic extract of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 109:637-42.
Poisonous plants affecting the central nervous system of horses in Brazil - (Book / Chapter)
Lima, E.F., Riet-Correa, B., Riet-Correa, F., Medeiros, R.M.T., Gardner, D.R., Riet-Correa, G. 2011. Poisonous plants affecting the central nervous system of horses in Brazil. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA: CAB International. p. 290-4.
Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus - (Book / Chapter)
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z., Panter, K.E. 2011. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus and Lupinus leucophyllus. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 97:566-71.
Nectar and pollen sugars constituting larval provisions of the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee (Megachile rotundata) (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cane, J.H., Gardner, D.R., Harrison, P. 2011. Nectar and pollen sugars constituting larval provisions of the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee (Megachile rotundata) (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae). Apidologie. 42:401-408.
Tremetone and structurally related compounds in white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima): A plant associated with trembles and milk sickness - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R., Colegate, S.M., Cook, D., Green, B.T., Meyerholtz, K.A., Wilson, C.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Evans, T.J. 2010. Tremetone and structurally related compounds in white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima): A plant associated with trembles and milk sickness. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(15):8560-65. DOI: 10.1021/jf1012456.
A comparison of alternate sample preparation procedures for the analysis of swainsonine using LC-MS/MS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gardner, D.R., Cook, D. 2011. A comparison of alternate sample preparation procedures for the analysis of swainsonine using LC-MS/MS. Phytochemical Analysis. 22(2):95-188.
Distribution of Delphinium occidentale chemotypes and their potential toxicity - (Book / Chapter)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Lee, S.T. 2011. Distribution of Delphinium occidentale chemotypes and their potential toxicity. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. p. 606-11.
A toxicokinetic comparison of norditerpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium barbeyi and D. glaucescens in cattle Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Davis, T.Z. 2011. A toxicokinetic comparison of norditerpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium barbeyi and D. glaucescens in cattle. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 31(1):20-6. DOI 10.1002/jat.1563.
Alkaloid profiles of Mimosa tenuiflora and associated methods of analysis - (Book / Chapter)
Gardner, D.R., Riet-Correa, F., Panter, K.E. 2011. Alkaloid profiles of Mimosa tenuiflora and associated methods of analysis. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA: CAB International. 103:600-5.
Measurement of steroidal saponins in Panicum and Brachiaria grasses in the USA and Brazil - (Book / Chapter)
Lee, S.T., Mitchell, R., Gardner, D.R., Tokarnia, C.H., Riet-Correa, F. 2011. Measurement of steroidal saponins in Panicum and Brachiaria grasses in the USA and Brazil. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge,MA. CAB International. 20:142-4.
The physiological effects and toxicokinetics of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) alkaloids in cattle - (Book / Chapter)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E. 2011. The physiological effects and toxicokinetics of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) alkaloids in cattle. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. p. 557-65.
Seasonal variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration and plant development in Senecio madagascariensis poir. (Asteraceae) in Brazil - (Book / Chapter)
Karam, F.S.C., Haraguchi, M., Gardner, D.R. 2011. Seasonal variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration and plant development in Senecio madagascariensis poir. (Asteraceae) in Brazil. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA: CAB International. p. 179-85.
The Capability of Several Toxic Plants to Condition Taste Aversions in Sheep Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Cheney, C.C., Panter, K.E., Hall, J.0. 2010. The Capability of Several Toxic Plants to Condition Taste Aversions in Sheep. Small Ruminant Research, 90(1):114-119. doi:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2010.02.009
Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Ralphs, M.H., Davis, T.Z., Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D. 2011. Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 36:236-42.
Asexual endophytes in a native grass: Tradeoffs in mortality, growth, reproduction, and alkaloid production - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Faeth, S.H., Hayes, C.J., Gardner, D.R. 2010. Asexual endophytes in a native grass: Tradeoffs in mortality, growth, reproduction, and alkaloid production. Microbial Ecology. 60:496-504. DOI: 10.1007/s00248-010-9643-4.
Effect of MDL-Type alkaloids on tall larkspur toxicosis - (Book / Chapter) - (29-Jan-10)
Dose-response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep - (Book / Chapter)
Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Cook, D. 2011. Dose-Response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 37:243-50.
Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z. 2010. Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time. Rangelands. 32(2):14-7.
The comparative pathology of locoweed poisoning in horses and other livestock - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Panter, K.E. 2011. The comparative pathology of locoweed poisoning in horses and other livestock. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 48:309-10.
Culture and Identification of Endophytic Fungi from Oxytropis glabra DC Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ping, L., Child, D., Meng-Li, Z., Gardner, D.R., Gui-Fen, L., Guo-Dong, H. 2009. Culture and Identification of Endophytic Fungi from Oxytropis glabra DC. ACTA Ecologica Sinica. 20(1):53-58
Swainsonine Concentrations and Endophyte Amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in Different Plant Parts of Oxytropis sericea Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T. 2009. Swainsonine Concentrations and Endophyte Amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in Different Plant Parts of Oxytropis sericea. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 35(10):1272-1278. (www.springerlink.com) DOI 0.1007/s10886-009-9710-9
Consumption of Low Larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum) by Grazing Sheep Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E. 2010. Consumption of Low Larkspur (Delphinium nuttallianum) by Grazing Sheep. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 63(2):263-266.
Asexual Endophytes and Associated Alkaloids Alter Arthropod Community Structure and Increase Herbivore Abundances on a Native Grass Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Jani, A.J., Faeth, S.H., Gardner, D.R. 2010. Asexual Endophytes and Associated Alkaloids Alter Arthropod Community Structure and Increase Herbivore Abundances on a Native Grass. Ecology Letters. 13(1): 106-17.
Implication of Agathic Acid from Utah Juniper Bark as an Abortifacient Compound in Cattle. Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2010. Implication of Agathic Acid from Utah Juniper Bark as an Abortifacient Compound in Cattle. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 30:115-119, 2010. DOI 10:1002/jat.1476
Quantitative PCR Method to Measure the Fungal Endopyte in Locoweeds Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Welch, K.D., Roper, J.M., Ralphs, M.H., Green, B.T. 2009. Quantitative PCR Method to Measure the Fungal Endopyte in Locoweeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57:6050-6054
Influence of 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine-type Alkaloids on the Toxic Effects Associated with Ingestion of Tall Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.)in Cattle Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Gardner, D.R., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Stegelmeier, B.L., Panter, K.E., Davis, T.Z. 2010. Influence of 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine-type Alkaloids on the Toxic Effects Associated with Ingestion of Tall Larkspurs (Delphinium spp.)in Cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. Vol 71, No 4, pp 487-492.
The Biogeographical Distribution of Duncecap Larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) Chemotypes and Their Potential Toxicity Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Lee, S.T. 2009. The Biogeographical Distribution of Duncecap Larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) Chemotypes and Their Potential Toxicity. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35:6443-652
A Quantitative Method for the Measurement of Three Benzofuran Ketones in Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and White Snakeroot (Ageratine altissima) by HPLC - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Evans, T.J. 2009. A Quantitative Method for the Measurement of Three Benzofuran Ketones in Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and White Snakeroot (Ageratine altissima) by HPLC. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57(12):5639-5642
Cyclopamine-induced Synophthalmia in Sheep: Defining a Critical Window and Toxicokinetic Evaluation Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Cook, D. 2009. Cyclopamine-induced Synophthalmia in Sheep: Defining a Critical Window and Toxicokinetic Evaluation. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 29:414-421. (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/jat.1427
Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Steroidal Saponins in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Mitchell, R., Wang, Z., Heiss, C., Gardner, D.R., Azadi, P. 2009. Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Steroidal Saponins in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57(6):2599-2604. DOI: 10.1021/jf803907y
Larkspur - Poison Weed (100 Years of Delphinium Research) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D. 2009. Larkspur - Poison Weed (100 Years of Delphinium Research). Rangelands, 31(1):22-27. http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.2111/1551-501X-31.1.45?
Livestock Poisoning with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Containing Plants (Senecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium and Echium spp.) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Gardner, D.R., Davis, T.Z. 2009. Livestock Poisoning with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Containing Plants (Senecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium and Echium spp.). Rangelands. 31(1):25-37. http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.2111/1551-501X-31.1.45?
Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gay, C., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Motteram, E., Cook, D., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z. 2008. Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years. Rangelands. 30(6): 13-8.
Value of Plant Diversity for Diet Mixing and Sequencing in Herbivores Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Provenza, F.D., Villalba, J.J., Wiedmeier, R.W., Layman, T., Owens, J., Lisonbee, L., Clemensen, A., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T. 2009. Value of Plant Diversity for Diet Mixing and Sequencing in Herbivores. Rangelands. 31(1):45-49. DOI:10.2111/1551-501X-31.1.45
The Alkaloid Profiles of Lupinus sulphureus Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z., Panter, K.E. 2009. The Alkaloid Profiles of Lupinus sulphureus. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 57(4):1646-1653.
Investigation of the Susceptibility of Various Strains of Mice to Methyllycaconitine Toxicosis Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2009. Investigation of the Susceptibility of Various Strains of Mice to Methyllycaconitine Toxicosis. Journal of Animal Science, 87:1558-1564. doi:102527/jas.2008-1577
Hplc/ms Analysis of Toxic Norditerpenoid Alkaloids: Refinement of Toxicity Assessment of Low Larkspurs (Delphinium SPP.) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A. 2008. HPLC/MS Analysis of Toxic Norditerpenoid Alkaloids: Refinement of toxicity assessment of low larkspurs (Delphinium spp.). Phytochemical Analysis 20:104-113.
Serum Elimination Profiles of Methyllycaconitine and Deltaline in Cattle Following Oral Administration of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2009. Serum Elimination Profiles of Methyllycaconitine and Deltaline in Cattle Following Oral Administration of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 70(7):926-931.
Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Cook, D., Welch, K.D. 2008. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows. Journal of Animal Science. 86:3608-16. DOI: 10.2527/jas.2008-1000.
The effect of 7, 8-Methylenedioxylycoctonine -Type Diterpenoid Alkaloids on the Toxicity of Methyllycaconitine in Mice Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2008. The effect of 7, 8-Methylenedioxylycoctonine -Type Diterpenoid Alkaloids on the Toxicity of Ethyllycaconitine in Mice. Journal of Animal Science, J. Anim. Sci. 86:2761-2770.
Effects of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) on Heart Rate and Electrically Evoked Electromyographic Response of the External Anal Sphincter in Cattle. Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Welch, K.D., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Knoppel, E.L., Panter, K.E. 2009. Effects of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) on Heart Rate and Electrically Evoked Electromyographic Response of the External Anal Sphincter in Cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 70(4):539-546
The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease. Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Welch, K.D. 2008. The Effect of Body Condition on Serum Concentrations of Two Teratogenic Alkaloids (Anagyrine and Ammodendrine) From Lupines (Lupinus spp.) That Cause Crooked Calf Disease. Journal of Animal Science. 86:2771-2778 doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0610.
Physiological and Morphological Characteristics Among Ecotypes of Basalt Milkvetch (Astragalus Filipes) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bhattarai, K., Johnson, D.A., Jones, T.A., Gardner, D.R., Connors, K.J. 2008. Physiological and Morphological Characteristics Among Ecotypes of Basalt Milkvetch (Astragalus Filipes): Basis for Plant Improvement. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61: 444-455.
The Effect of High Deltaline Concentration on the Toxicity of Methyllycaconitine in Mice - (Abstract Only)
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D. 2008. The Effect of High Deltaline Concentration on the Toxicity of Methyllycaconitine in Mice. International Society on Toxicology Meeting.
Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Chang, C.T., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J. 2008. Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs. Phytochemical Analysis, 19:395-402. DOI: 10.1002/pca.1064.
Synthesis and anticancer activity studies of cyclopamine derivatives Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Zhang, J., Garrossian, M., Gardner, D.R., Garrossian, A., Chang, Y., Kim, Y.K., Chang, C.T. 2008. Synthesis and anticancer activity studies of cyclopamine derivatives. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters. Online 18(2008) 1359-1363.
Relationship between the endophyte embellisia spp. and the toxic alkaloid swainsonine in major locoweed species (Astragalus and Oxytropis) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Creamer, R., Baucom, D., Gardner, D.R., Welch, S.L., Graham, J.D., Hart, C., Cook, D., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2007. Relationship between the endophyte embellisia spp. and the toxic alkaloid swainsonine in major locoweed species (Astragalus and Oxytropis). Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 34 No. 1 pp.32-28 (2008). Published online 12/01/2007 DOI 10.1007/s10886-007-9399-6
Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H., Motteram, E.S., Pfister, J.A., Gay, C. 2007. Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Web release 11/27/2007 Article DOI: 10.1021/jf0723110 Journal releae Volume 55, Number 26, pp. 10649-10655.
Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pimentel, L., Correa, F.R., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Dantas, A.F., Medeiros, R.A., Mota, R.A., Araujo, J.A. 2007. Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands. Veterinary Pathology.
Phytochemicals: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly? - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Molyneux, R.J., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., James, L.F. 2007. Phytochemicals: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly?. Phytochemistry.68(22-24):2973-2985.
Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Barbosa, R.C., Riet-Correa, F., Lima, E.F., Medeiros, R.M., Guedes, K.M., Gardner, D.R., Molyneux, R.J., De Melo, L.E. 2007. Experimental swainsonine poisoning in goats ingesting Ipomoea sericophylla and Ipomoea riedelii (Convolvulaceae). Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira, 27(10):409-414.
Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Soto-Blanco, B., Stegelmeier, B.L., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E. 2007. Comparative effects of prolonged administration of cyanide, thiocyanate and chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) to goats. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 28:356-363
Effect of previous locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis species) intoxication on conditioned taste aversions in horses and sheep - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pfister, J.A., Stegelmeier, B.L., Cheney, C.D., Gardner, D.R. 2007. Effect of previous locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis species) intoxication on conditioned taste aversions in horses and sheep. Journal of Animal Science. 85:1836-1841
Toxic alkaloid concentrations in Delphinium nuttallianum, D. andersonii, and D. geyeri in the Intermountain region Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Toxic alkaloid concentrations in Delphinium nuttallianum, D. andersonii, and D. geyeri in the Intermountain region. Vol. 60 Issue 4 pp.441-446.
Assessment of the perinatal effects of maternal ingestion of Ipomoea carnea in rats - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hueza, I.M., Guerra, J., Haraguchi, M., Gardner, D.R., Asano, N., Ikeda, K., Gorniak, S.L. 2007. Assessment of the perinatal effects of maternal ingestion of Ipomoea carnea in rats. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 58:439-446.
Important poisonous plants of the United States - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F. 2007. Important poisonous plants of the United States. Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, Chpt. 66 pp. 825-872.
Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Liang, Y., Gardner, D.R., Miller, C.D., Chen, D., Anderson, A.J., Weimer, B.C., Sims, R. 2006. Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Vol. 72, No. 12, pp. 7821-7828.
North American Legumes for Rangeland Restoration, Conservation, and Forage Production in the Western U.S. - (Abstract Only)
Johnson, D.A., Bhattarai, K., Jones, T.A., Bushman, B.S., Gardner, D.R. 2007. North American Legumes for Rangeland Restoration, Conservation, and Forage Production in the Western U.S.. Society for Range Management Meeting Abstracts.
Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R. 2006. Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 33:75-84
Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Dantas, A.F., Riet-Correa, F., Gardner, D.R., Medeiros, R.M., Barros, S.S., Anjos, B.L., Lucena, R.B. 2009. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil. Toxicon. 49:111-6.
A Case of Acute Water Hemlock (Cicuta Maculata) Poisoning and Death in Cattle after Ingestion of Green Seed Heads - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Holstege, D., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2007. A case of acute water hemlock (cicuta maculata) poisoning and death in cattle after ingestion of green seed heads. Poisonous Plants Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 44, pp. 259-264.
The Effects of Vaccination on Riddelliine Toxicity in Rats - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. The effects of vaccination on riddelliine toxicity in rats. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 15, pp. 89 - 93.
Cutleaf Nightshade (Solanum Triflorumm NUTT.) Toxicity in Horses and Hamsters - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Cutleaf nightshade (solanum triflorumm nutt.) toxicity in horses and hamsters. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 50, pp. 296 - 300.
The Comparative Pathology of Locoweed Poisoning in Livestock, Wildlife and Rodents - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. The comparative pathology of locoweed poisoning in livestock, wildlife and rodents. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions. Chpt. 61, pp. 359 - 365.
N-Alkylated Derivatives of Swainsonine - (Book / Chapter)
Garrossian, M., Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R. 2007. N-alkylated derivatives of swainsonine. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 84, pp. 492 - 497.
Pheasant's Eye (Adonis Aestavalis) Toxicity in Livestock and Rodents - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Hall, J.O., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Pheasant's eye (adonis aestavalis) toxicity in livestock and rodents. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions. Chpt. 79, pp. 463 - 468.
Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) Toxicity in Rodents, Sheep, Goats and Horses - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Elmore, S.A., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Switchgrass (panicum virgatum) toxicity in rodents, sheep, goats and horses. Poisonous Plants Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 19,pp. 113 - 117.
Separation and Isolation of Teratogenic Piperidine Enantiomers from Nicotiana and Lupinus Species - (Book / Chapter)
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Chang, C.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Separation and isolation of teratogenic piperidine enantiomers from nicotiana and lupinus species. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 80, pp. 469 - 475.
Research on Lupine-Induced "Crooked Calf Disease" at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: Past, Present and Future - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Wierenga, T.L., Gay, C., Motteram, E., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2007. Research on Lupine-Induced "Crooked Calf Disease" at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: Past, Present and Future. Poisonous Plants Global Research and Solutions. Chpt. 10, pp. 58 - 65.
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Senecio madagascariensis from Australia and Hawaii and assessment of possible livestock poisoning - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gardner, D.R., Thorne, M.S., Molyneux, R.J., Pfister, J.A., Seawright, A.A. 2006. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Senecio madagascariensis from Australia and Hawaii and assessment of possible livestock poisoning. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology.
Involvement of AtLAC15 in lignin synthesis in seeds and in root elongation of Arabidopsis - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Liang, M., Davis, E., Gardner, D.R., Cai, X., Wu, Y. 2001. Involvement of AtLAC15 in lignin synthesis in seeds and in root elongation of Arabidopsis. Planta.
Relative Toxicities and Neuromuscular Nicotinic Receptor Agonistic Potencies of Anabasine Enantiomers and Anabaseine - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Wildeboer, K., Panter, K.E., Kem, W., Gardner, D.R., Molyneux, R.J., Chang, C.T., Soti, F., Pfister, J.A. 2006. Relative toxicities and neuromuscular nicotinic receptor agonistic potencies of anabasine enantiomers and anabaseine. Neurotoxicology and Teratology.
Intoxication by Ipomoea Sericophylla and Ipomoea Riedelii in Goats in the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Barbosa, R.C., Riet-Correa, F., Medeiros, R.M., Lima, E.F., Gimeno, J.E., Barros, S.S., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R. 2006. Intoxication by ipomoea sericophylla and ipomoea riedelii in goats in the state of paraiba, northeastern brazil. Toxicon. Volume:47:371-379.
Intoxication by Ipomoea Sericophylla and Ipomoea Riedelii in Goats in the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Barbosa, R.C., Riet-Correa, F., Medeiros, R.M., Lima, E.F., Barros, S.S., Gimeno, E.J., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R. 2006. Intoxication by ipomoea sericophylla and ipomoea riedelii in goats in the state of paraiba, northeastern brazil. Toxicon.
Temporal and Spatial Variation in Alkaloid Levels in Achnatherum Robustum, a Native Grass Infected with the Endophyte Neotyphodium - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Faeth, S.H., Gardner, D.R., Cimmamon, J.H., Jani, A., Hamilton, C.E., Wittlinger, S.K., Jones, T.A. 2006. Temporal and spatial variation in alkaloid levels in achnatherum robustum, a native grass infected with the endophyte neotyphodium. Journal of Chemical Ecology.
Basalt Milkvetch: a Promising North American Legume for Rangeland Rehabilitation, Conservation, and Forage Production - (Abstract Only)
Johnson, D.A., Bhattarai, K., Jones, T.A., Gardner, D.R., Cane, J.H. 2005. Basalt milkvetch: a promising north american legume for rangeland rehabilitation, conservation, and forage production. Society for Range Management Meeting Abstracts.
Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea) Induced Lesions in Mule Deer (Odocoileius Hemionus) Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Spraker, T.R. 2005. LOCOWEED (OXYTROPIS SERICEA) INDUCED LESIONS IN MULE DEER (ODOCOILEIUS HEMIONUS). Veterinary Pathology. 42(5): 566-78.
Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea)-Induced Lesions in Mule Deer (Odocoileius Hemionus) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Spraker, T.R. 2005. Locoweed (oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (odocoileius hemionus). Veterinary Pathology 42:566-578.
Ammodendrine and N-Methylammodendrine Enantiomers: Isolation, Optical Rotation, and Toxicity - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E., Chang, C.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Garrossian, M. 2005. Ammodendrine and n-methylammodendrine enantiomers: isolation, optical rotation, and toxicity. Journal of Natural Products.
Basalt Milkvetch and Globemallows: North American Forbs for Rehabilitation, Conservation, and Forage Production - (Abstract Only)
Johnson, D.A., Jones, T.A., Cane, J.H., Gardner, D.R., Peel, M. 2005. Basalt milkvetch and globemallows: north american forbs for rehabilitation, conservation, and forage production. Society for Range Management Meeting Abstracts.
Hedgehog Signalling in Prostate Regeneration, Neoplasia and Metastasis - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Karhadkar, S.S., Bova, G.S., Abdallah, N., Dhara, S., Gardner, D.R., Maltra, A., Isaacs, J.T., Berman, D.M., Beachy, P.A. 2004. Hedgehog signalling in prostate regeneration, neoplasia and metastasis. Nature.
Structure-Activity Relationships of Ammodendrine and N-Methyl Ammodendrine Enantiomers: Isolation, Optical Rotation, and Toxicity - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E., Chang, C., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Garrossian, M. 2005. Structure-activity relationships of ammodendrine and n-methyl ammodendrine enantiomers: isolation, optical rotation, and toxicity. Journal of Natural Products.
Effects of the Pine Needle Abortifacient, Isocupressic Acid, on Bovine Oocyte Maturation and Preimplantation Embryo Development - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Wang, S., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Evans, R.C., Bunch, T.D. 2004. Effects of the pine needle abortifacient, isocupressic acid, on bovine oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development. Animal Reproduction Sciences.
Correlation of An Endophytic Fungus (Alternaria SPP.) with the Presence of Swainsonine in Lambert Locoweed (Oxytropis Lambertii) - (Book / Chapter)
Gardner, D.R., Romero, J., Ralphs, M.H., Creamer, R. 2003. Correlation of an endophytic fungus (alternaria spp.) with the presence of swainsonine in lambert locoweed (oxytropis lambertii). Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
Toxicophenology and Grazing Risk Models of Tall Larkspur - (Book / Chapter)
Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A. 2003. Toxicophenology and grazing risk models of tall larkspur. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
Characterization of Steroidal Sapogenins in Panicum Virgatum L. (Switchgrass) - (Proceedings)
Lee, S.T., Stegelmeier, B.L., Gardner, D.R., Vogel, K.P. 2003. Characterization of steroidal sapogenins in panicum virgatum l. (switchgrass). Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
The Detection and Estimation of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Plants and Feeds Using An Elisa - (Proceedings)
Lee, S.T., Schoch, T.K., Stegelmeier, B.L., Gardner, D.R., Than, K.A., Molyneux, R.J. 2003. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid measurement in plants, feeds, and food supplies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
The Clinical and Morphological Changes of Intermittent Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea) Poisoning in Sheep - (Proceedings)
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2003. The clinical and morphological changes of intermittent locoweed (oxytropis sericea) poisoning in sheep. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
Toxicity of a Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Riddelliine, in Neonatal Pigs - (Book / Chapter)
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R., Schoch, T.K., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2003. Toxicity of a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, riddelliine, in neonatal pigs. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
Grazing of Spotted Locoweed (Astragalus Lentiginosus)by Cattle and Horses in Arizona - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PFISTER, J.A., STEGELMEIER, B.L., GARDNER, D.R., JAMES, L.F. GRAZING OF SPOTTED LOCOWEED (ASTRAGALUS LENTIGINOSUS)BY CATTLE AND HORSES IN ARIZONA. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE 81:2285-2293, 2003.
Screening Poisonous Plant Toxins for Cytotoxicity Using Bovine Embryos produced by in Vitro Fertilization Techniques - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Wang, .S., Gardner, D.R., Gaffield Jr, W.P., Molyneux, R.J., Stegelmeier, B.L., Bunch, .T. 2004. Screening poisonous plant toxins for cytotoxicity using bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization techniques. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
Distribution of Norditerpene Alkaloids in Tall Larkspur Plant Parts Through the Growing Season - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R. 2003. Distribution of norditerpene alkaloids in tall larkspur plant parts through the growing season. Journal of Chemical Ecology. Vol. 29, No. 9 pp. 2013-2021
Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Isocupressic Acid and Serum Metabolites of Isocupressic Acid - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., GARDNER, D.R., GARROSSIAN, M., PANTER, K.E., SERREQI, A.N., SCHOCH, T.K., WIERENGA, T.L. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR ISOCUPRESSIC ACID AND SERUM METABOLITES OF ISOCUPRESSIC ACID. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2003.
Catastrophic Cattle Loss to Low Larkspur (Delphinium Nuttallianum) in Idaho - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PFISTER, J.A., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L., HACKETT, K., SECRIST, G. CATASTROPHIC CATTLE LOSS TO LOW LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM NUTTALLIANUM) IN IDAHO. VETERINARY AND HUMAN TOXICOLOGY. Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 137-139, 2003.
Tremorgenic Syndrome in Goats Caused by Ipomoea Asarifolia in Northeastern Brazil - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
MEDEIROS, R.M., BARBOSA, R.C., TABOSA, I.M., RIET-CORREA, F., DE BARROS, S.S., GARDNER, D.R., MOLYNEUX, R.J. TREMORGENIC SYNDROME CAUSED BY IPOMOEA ASARIFOLIA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL. TOXICON. v. 41. p. 933-935. 2003.
Tremorgenic Syndrome in Goats Caused by Ipomoea Asarifolia in Northeastern Brazil - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
MEDEIROS, R., BARBOSA, R.C., RIET-CORREA, F., LIMA, E.F., TABOSA, I.M., DE BARROS, S.S., GARDNER, D.R., MOLYNEUX, R. TREMORGENIC SYNDROME IN GOATS CAUSED BY IPOMOEA ASARIFOLIA IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL. TOXICON. 2003.
Plant Resources of South East Asia 12(3) Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3 - (Review Article)
Gardner, D.R. 2003. Plant resources of south east asia 12(3) medicinal and poisonous plants 3. Scientific and Technical Review.
The Toxicity and Kinetics of Larkspur Alkaloid, Methyllycaconitine, in Mice - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stegelmeier, B.L., Hall, J.0., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E. 2003. The toxicity and kinetics of larkspur alkaloid, methyllycaconitine, in mice. Journal of Animal Science.
Preparative Isolation of Swainsonine from Locoweed: Extraction and Purification Procedures - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
GARDNER, D.R., LEE, S.T., MOLYNEUX, R.J., EDGAR, J.A. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION OF SWAINSONINE FROM LOCOWEEDS: EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION PROCEDURES. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 2003.
Sites of Phosphorylation of P and V Proteins from Hendra and Nipah Viruses: Newly Emerged Members of Paramyxoviridae - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
SHIELL, B.J., GARDNER, D.R., CRAMERI, G., EATON, B.T., WOJTEK, M.P. SITES OF PHOSPHORYLATION OF P AND V PROTEINS FROM HENDRA AND NIPAH VIRUSES: NEWLY EMERGED MEMBERS OF PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. VIRUS RESEARCH. 2003.
Evaluation of Vaccination Against Methyllycaconitine Toxicity in Mice Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., STEGELMEIER, B.L., PANTER, K.E., PFISTER, J.A., GARDNER, D.R., SCHOCH, T.K., JAMES, L.F. EVALUATION OF ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION AGAINST METHYLLYCACONITINE TOXICITY IN MICE. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE 2003, 81:232-238.
Evaluation of Vaccination Against Methyllycaconitine Toxicity in Mice - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Lee, S.T., Stegelmeier, B.L., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Schoch, T.K., James, L.F. 2003. Evaluation of vaccination against methyyllycaconitine toxicity in mice. Journal of Animal Science.
Predicting Toxicity of Tall Larkspur (Delphinium Barbeyi): Measurement of the Variation in Alkaloid Concentration among Plants and among Years - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Turner, D.L., Pfister, J.A., Thacker, E.T. 2002. Predicting toxicity of tall larkspur (delphinium barbeyi) and measurement of the variation in toxic alkaloid concentration between plants and among yearss. Journal of Chemical Ecology. Vol. 28, No. 11 pp. 2327-2341.
Identification of Swainsonine As a Glycoside Inhibitor Responsible for Sida Carpinifolia Poisoning - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
COLODEL, E.N., GARDNER, D.R., DRIEMMEIER, D., ZLOTOWSKI, P. IDENTIFICATION OF SWAINSONINE AS A GLYCOSIDE INHIBITOR RESPONSIBLE FOR SIDACARPINIFOLIA POISONING. VETERINARY AND HUMAN TOXICOLOGY. 2002.
Preparation of Tetrahydroagathic Acid: a Serum Metabolite of Isocupressic Acid, a Cattle Abortifacient in Ponderosa Pine. - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Garrossian, M., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., James, L.F. 2002. Preparation of tetrahydroagathic acid: a serum metabolite of isocupressic acid, a cattle abortifacient in ponderosa pine.. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
Distribution of the Locoweed Toxin Swainsonine in Populations of Oxytropis Lambertii - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
RALPHS, M.H., WELSH, S.L., GARDNER, D.R. DISTRIBUTION OF THE LOCOWEED TOXIN, SWAINSONINE, IN POPULATIONS OF OXYTROPIS LAMBERTII. JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ECOLOGY. 2002.
Development of Sts and Caps Markers for Identification Three Tall Larkspurs (Delphinium SPP.) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LI, X., GARDNER, D.R., RALPHS, M.H., WANG, R. DEVELOPMENT OF STS AND CAPS MARKERS FOR IDENTIFICATION THREE TALL LARKSPURS (DELPHINIUM SPP.). GENOME. 2002.
Plains Larkspur (Delphinium Geyeri) Grazing by Cattle in Wyoming - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PFISTER, J.A., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L., KNIGHT, A.P., WAGGONER, J.W., HALL, J.O. PLAINS LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM GEYERI) GRAZING BY CATTLE IN WYOMING. JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT. 2002.
Clipping and Precipitation Influences on Locoweed Vigor, Mortality, and Toxicity - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Graham, D.J., Greathouse, G., Knight, A.P. 2002. Influence of defoliation on locoweed vigor, longevity,and toxicity. Journal of Range Management.
Conditioning Taste Aversions to Locoweed (Oxytropis Sericea) in Horses - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PFISTER, J.A., STEGELMEIER, B.L., CHENEY, C.D., RALPHS, M.H., GARDNER, D.R. CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSIONS TO LOCOWEED (OXYTROPIS SERICEA) IN HORSES. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE. 2002.
Analysis of Swainsonine: Extraction Methods, Detection, and Measurement in Populations of Locoweeds (Oxytropis SPP.) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
GARDNER, D.R., MOLYNEUX, R.J., RALPHS, M.H. ANALYSIS OF SWAINSONINE IN LOCOWEEDS (OXYTROPIS SPP.): EXTRACTION METHODS AND DETECTION USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AND TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2001.
The Isolation and Identification of Steroidal Sapogenins in Switchgrass - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., STEGELMEIER, B.L., GARDNER, D.R., VOGEL, K.P. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STEROIDAL SAPOGENINS IN SWITCHGRASS. JOURNAL OF NATURAL TOXINS. 2001.
Reproductive Losses to Poisonous Plants: Influence of Management Strategies - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PANTER, K.E., JAMES, L.F., GARDNER, D.R., RALPHS, M.H., PFISTER, J.A., STEGELMEIER, B.L., LEE, S.T. REPRODUCTIVE LOSSES TO POISONOUS PLANTS: INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES. JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT. 2002.
Taxonomic Implications of Diterpene Alkaloids in Three Toxic Tall Larkspur Species (Delphinium SPP.) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
GARDNER, D.R., RALPHS, M.H., TURNER, D., WELSH, S. TAXONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF DITERPENE ALKALOIDS IN THREE TOXIC TALL LARKSPUR SPECIES (DELPHINIUM SPP.). BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGY. 2002.
Genetic Variation Within and among 22 Acessions of Three Tall Larkspur Species (Delphinium SPP.) Based on Rapd Markers - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LI, X., RALPHS, M.H., GARDNER, D.R., WANG, R. GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN AND AMONG 22 ACESSIONS OF THREE TALL LARKSPUR SPECIES (DELPHINIUM SPP.) BASED ON RAPD MARKERS. BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGY. 2002.
Management of Three Toxic Delphinium Species Based on Alkaloid Concentrations - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PFISTER, J.A., RALPHS, M.H., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L., MANNERS, G.D., PANTER, K.E., LEE, S.T. MANAGEMENT OF THREE TOXIC DELPHINIUM SPECIES BASED ON ALKALOID CONCENTRATIONS. BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGY. 2002.
Larkspur Poisoning: Toxicology and Alkaloid Structure-Activity Relationships - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PANTER, K.E., MANNERS, G.D., JAMES, L.F., GARDNER, D.R., RALPHS, M.H., PFISTER, J.A., STEGELMEIER, B.L., LEE, S.T. LARKSPUR POISONING: TOXICOLOGY AND ALKALOID STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS. BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGY. 2002.
Screening Poisonous Plant Toxins for Cytotoxicity Using Bovine Embryos Produced by in Vitro Fertilization Techniques - (Book / Chapter)
Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Wang, S., Gardner, D.R., Gaffield Jr, W.P., Molyneux, R.J., Stegelmeier, B.L., Bunch, T.D. 2004. Screening poisonous plant toxins for cytotoxicity using bovine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization techniques. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
Beef Cattle Losses after Grazing Lupinus Argenteus (Silvery Lupine) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Panter, K.E., Mayland, H.F., Gardner, D.R., Shewmaker, G. 2001. Death losses in beef cattle after grazing lupinus argenteus (silvery lupine). Veterinary and Human Toxicology.
Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Hepatotoxic Alkaloids Riddelliine and Riddelliine N-Oxide - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., SCHOCH, T.K., STEGELMEIER, B.L., GARDNER, D.R., THAN, K.A., MOLYNEUX, R.J. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR THE HEPATOTOXIC ALKALOIDS RIDDELLIINE AND RIDDELLIINE N-OXIDE. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2001.
Alkaloids As Anti-Quality Factors in Plants on Western U.S. Rangelands - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PFISTER, J.A., PANTER, K.E., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L., RALPHS, M.H., MOLYNEUX, R.J., LEE, S.T. ALKALOIDS AS ANTI-QUALITY FACTORS IN PLANTS ON WESTERN U.S. RANGELANDS. JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT. 2001.
Influence of Defoliation on Toxic Alkaloid Concentration and Alkaloid Pools in Tall Larkspur - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R. 2001. Influence of defoliation on toxic alkaloid concentration in tall larkspur. Journal of Chemical Ecology.
Influence of Defoliation on Toxic Alkaloid Concentration and Alkaloid Pools in Tall Larkspur - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R. 2001. Influence of defoliation on toxic alkaloid concentration and alkaloid poolsin tall larkspur. Journal of Chemical Ecology.
Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Toxic Larkspur (Delphinium SPP.)ALKALOIDS - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
LEE, S.T., SCHOCH, T.K., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR TOXIC LARKSPUR ALKALOIDS. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL FOOD & CHEMICAL. 2000.
Alkaloid Levels in Duncecap (Delphinium Occidentale) and Tall Larkspur (D. Barbeyi)grown in Reciprocal Gardens: Separating Genetic from Environmental Influences - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R. 2001. Alkaloid levels in duncecap (delphinium occidentale) and tall larkspur (d. barbeyi)grown in reciprocal gardens: separating genetic from environmental influences. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology.
A Functional Explanation for Patterns of Norditerpenoid Alkaloid Levels in Tall Larkspur (Delphinium Barbeyi) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A. 2000. A functional explanation for patterns of norditerpenoid alkaloid levels in tall larkspur (delphinium barbeyi). Journal of Chemical Ecology.
Three New Toxic Norditerpenoid Alkaloids from the Low Larkspur Delphinium Nuttallianum - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
GARDNER, D.R., MANNERS, G.D., PANTER, K.E., LEE, S.T., PFISTER, J.A. THREE NEW TOXIC NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM THE LOW LARKSPUR DELPHINIUM NUTTALLIANUM PRITZ. JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS. 2000.
Gc/ms/ms Detection of Pyrrolic Metabolites in Animals Poisoned with the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Riddelline - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
SCHOCH, T.K., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L. GC/MS/MS DETECTION OF PYRROLIC METABOLITES IN ANIMALS POISONED WITH THE PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOID RIDDELLINE. VETERINARY AND HUMAN TOXICOLOGY. 2000.
Comparison of Cleft Palate Induction by Nicotiana Glauca in Goats and Sheep - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
PANTER, K.E., WEINZWEIG, J., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L., JAMES, L.F. COMPARISON OF CLEFT PALATE INDUCTION BY NICOTIANA GLAUCA IN FETAL GOATS AND SHEEP. TERATOLOGY. 2000.
Anaylsis of Toxic Norditerpenoid Alkaloids in Delphinium Species by Electrospray, Atmospheric Pressure Chemcial Ionization and Sequential Tandem Mass Spectrometry - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
GARDNER, D.R., PANTER, K.E., PFISTER, J.A., KNIGHT, A.P. ANAYLSIS OF TOXIC NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS IN DELPHINIUM SPECIES BY ELECTROSPRAY, ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE CHEMCIAL IONIZATION AND SEQUENTIAL TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY. JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS. 1999.
Late Season Toxic Alkaloid Concentrations in Tall Larkspur (Delphinium SPP.) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
GARDNER, D.R., Pfister, J.A. LATE SEASON TOXIC ALKALOID CONCENTRATIONS IN TALL LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM SPP.). JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT. 2000.
Last Modified: 5/5/2010
Footer Content Back to Top of Page