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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Jeffry J. Stone (Jeff)

Research Hydrologist


Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Modelling scale-dependent runoff generation in a small semi-arid watershed accounting for rainfall intensity and water depth 2197 - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (24-Mar-14)
Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) enhancements for applications on disturbed rangelands - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (29-Jan-14)
Evaluating the capability of the enhanced Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) for modeling the soil erosion impact of disturbance on rangelands - (Abstract Only) - (01-Oct-13)
Modeling soil erosion impact of rangeland disturbance using the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) - (Abstract Only)
Williams, C.J., Pierson, F.B., Spaeth, K.E., Al-Hamdan, O.Z., Weltz, M.A., and Boll, J. 2013. Eco-hydrology considerations for enhancement of ecological site descriptions [abstract]. Soil and Water Conservation Society 68th International Annual Conference, Resilient Landscapes: Planning for Food, Drought, and Fire, July 21-24, 2013 Reno, Nevada.
Application of a rangeland soil erosion model using NRI data in southeastern Arizona 2191 - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (15-Feb-13)
Risk assessment of erosion from concentrated flow on rangelands using overland flow distribution and shear stress partitioning - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Al-Hamdan, O.Z., Pierson Jr, F.B., Nearing, M.A., Williams, C.J., Stone, J.J., Kormos, P.R., Boll, J., Weltz, M.A. 2013. Risk assessment of erosion from concentrated flow on rangelands using overland flow distribution and shear stress partitioning. Transactions of the ASABE. 56(2):539-548.
A sediment budget for a small semiarid watershed in southeastern Arizona, USA - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nichols, M.H., Nearing, M.A., Polyakov, V.O., Stone, J.J. 2012. A sediment budget for a small semiarid watershed in southeastern Arizona, USA. Geomorphology. 180-181: 137-145.
Modeling overland erosion on disturbed rangeland - (Abstract Only)
Al-Hamdan, O.Z., Hernandez, M., Pierson, F.B., Nearing, M., Stone, J.J., Williams, C.J., Boll, J., and Weltz, M. 2012. Modeling overland erosion on disturbed rangeland. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Annual Fall Meeting, December 3-7, 2012, San Francisco, CA.
Concentrated flow erodibility for physically-based erosion models: temporal variability in disturbed and undisturbed rangelands - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Al-Hamdan, O.Z., Pierson Jr, F.B., Nearing, M.A., Williams, C.J., Stone, J.J., Kormos, P.R., Boll, J., Weltz, M.A. 2012. Concentrated flow erodibility for physically-based erosion models: temporal variability in disturbed and undisturbed rangelands. Water Resources Research. DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011464.
Estimating concentrated flow erodibility parameters from pre- and post-fire rangeland field data for physically-based erosion modeling - (Abstract Only)
Al-Hamdan, O.Z., Pierson, F.B., Williams, C.J., Nearing, M., Stone, J., Kormos, P.R., Boll, J., and Weltz, M.A. 2011. Estimating concentrated flow erodibility parameters from pre- and post-fire rangeland field data for physically-based erosion modeling. Abstract H31B-1141. Presented at the 2011 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, December 5-9, 2011, San Francisco, CA.
Techniques for assessing the environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to rangeland watersheds - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Weltz, M.A., Jolley, L., Goodrich, D., Boykin, K., Nearing, M., Stone, J., Guertin, P., Hernandez, M., Spaeth, K., Pierson, F., Morris, C., Kepner, B. 2011. Techniques for assessing the environmental outcomes of conservation practices applied to rangeland watersheds. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 66(5):154A-162A.
Utilizing long-term ARS data to compare and contrast hydroclimatic trends from snow and rainfall dominated watersheds 2142 - (Proceedings) - (06-Sep-11)
Characteristics of concentrated flow hydraulics for rangeland ecosystems: implications for hydrologic modeling - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Al-Hamdan, O.Z., Pierson Jr, F.B., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Williams, C.J., Moffet, C.A., Kormos, P.R., Boll, J., Weltz, M.A. 2012. Characteristics of concentrated flow hydraulics for rangeland ecosystems: Implications for hydrologic modeling. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 37(2):157-168.
Modeling climate change effects on runoff and soil erosion in southeastern Arizona rangelands and implications for mitigation with rangeland conservation practices - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Zhang, Y., Hernandez, M., Anson, E.L., Nearing, M.A., Wei, H., Stone, J.J., Heilman, P. 2012. Modeling climate change effects on runoff and soil erosion in southeastern Arizona rangelands and implications for mitigation with rangeland conservation practices. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 67(5):390-405.
Fire, plant invasions, and erosion events on western rangelands - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Pierson Jr, F.B., Williams, C.J., Hardegree, S.P., Weltz, M.A., Stone, J.J., Clark, P. 2011. Fire, plant invasions, and erosion events on western rangelands. Rangeland Ecology and Management. 64(5):439-449. DOI: 10.2111/REM-D-09-00147.1.
Agwa: the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool to Inform Rangeland Management Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Goodrich, D.C., Guertin, D.P., Burns, I.S., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Wei, H., Heilman, P., Hernandez, M., Spaeth, K., Pierson Jr, F.B., Paige, G.B., Miler, S.N., Kepner, W., Mcclaran, M.P., Weltz, M.A., Jolley, L. 2011. AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool to inform rangeland management. Rangelands. 33(4):41-47.
Shear stress partitioning of overland flow on disturbed and undisturbed rangelands - (Proceedings)
Al-Hamdan, O.Z., Pierson, F.B., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Williams, C.J., Kormos, P.R., Boll, J., and Weltz, M.A. (2011) “Shear Stress Partitioning of Overland Flow on Disturbed and Undisturbed Rangelands”, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Erosion and Landscape Evolution, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers and Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologist, Edited by Flanagan, D.C., Ascough II, J.C., and Nieber J.L., Paper # 11134.
A rangeland hydrology and erosion model - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nearing, M.A., Wei, H., Stone, J.J., Pierson, Jr. F.B., Spaeth, K., Weltz, M.A., Flanagan, D.C., Hernandez, M. 2011. A rangeland hydrology and erosion model. Transactions of the ASABE. 54(3):1-8.
Comparative rates of wind versus water erosion from a small semiarid watershed in southern Arizona, USA - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Zhang, Y., Nearing, M.A., Liu, B.Y., Van Pelt, R.S., Stone, J.J., Wei, H., Scott, R.L. 2011. Comparative rates of wind versus water erosion from a small semiarid watershed in southern Arizona, USA. Aeolian Research. 3:197-204.
Shear stress partitioning of overland flow on disturbed and undisturbed rangelands - (Abstract Only)
Al-Hamdan, O.Z., Pierson, F.B., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Williams, C.J., Kormos, P.R., Boll, J., and Weltz, M.A. (2011) “Shear Stress Partitioning of Overland Flow on Disturbed and Undisturbed Rangelands”, Abstract, in the International Symposium on Erosion and Landscape Evolution, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers and Association of Environmental and Engineering Geologist, Edited by Ascough II C. and Flanagan, D. C. pp 110.
Soil moisture and ecosystem function responses of desert grassland varying in vegetative cover to a saturating precipitation pulse - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamerlynck, E.P., Scott, R.L., Stone, J.J. 2012. Soil moisture and ecosystem function responses of desert grassland varying in vegetative cover to a saturating precipitation pulse. Ecohydrology. 5: 297-307. doi:10.1002/eco.214.
New concentrated flow hydraulics equations for physically-based rangeland hydrology and erosion models - (Abstract Only)
Al-Hamdan, O.Z., Pierson, F.B., Williams, C.J., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Moffet, C.A., Kormos, P.R., Boll, J., and Weltz, M.A. 2010. New Concentrated Flow Hydraulics Equations for Physically-Based Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Models. Presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, California, 13-17 December 2010, Abstract H41F-1156.
Runoff and erosional response to a drought-induced shift in a desert grassland community composition - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Polyakov, V.O., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Hamerlynck, E.P., Nichols, M.H., Holifield Collins, C.D., Scott, R.L. 2010. Runoff and erosional response to a drought-induced shift in a desert grassland community composition. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. 115: 1-8. G04027.
Automated Geospatial Waershed Asessment Tool for Rangelands - (Proceedings)
Guertin, D., Paige, G., Goodrich, D.C., Nearing, M.A., Miler, S., Heilman, P., Stone, J.J., Ruyle, G., Burns, S., Wei, H., Mcclaran, M. 2010. Automated Geospatial Waershed Asessment Tool for Rangelands. Proceedings CD-ROM of the Joint 9th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference and 4th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, June 27 - July 1, 2010, Riviera Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Long-term runoff and sediment yields from small semi-arid watersheds in southern Arizona Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Polyakov, V., Nearing, M.A., Nichols, M.H., Scott, R.L., Stone, J.J., Mcclaran, M. 2010. Long-term runoff and sediment yields from small semi-arid watersheds in southern Arizona. Water Resources Research. 46: W09512, doi:10.1029/2009WR009001.
Ecological Sites of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed - (Proceedings)
Heilman, P., Stone, J.J., Robinett, D. 2010. Ecological Sites of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Proceedings of AWRA 2010 Spring Specialty Conference Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Water Resources VI March 29-31, 2010 Orlando, Florida.
Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool for Rangelands - (Proceedings)
Guertin, D.P., Paige, G., Goodrich, D.C., Nearing, M.A., Miller, S.N., Heilman, P., Stone, J.J., Ruyle, G., Burns, S., Wei, H., Mcclaran, M. 2010. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool for Rangelands. Proceedings CD-ROM of the Joint 9th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference and 4th Federal Interagency Hydrologic Modeling Conference, June 27 - July 1, 2010, Riviera Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Concentrated Flow Erosion after Pinyon-Juniper Cutting - (Abstract Only)
Costigan, K., Weltz, M.A., Stone, J.J., Morris, C.E. 2010. Concentrated Flow Erosion after Pinyon-Juniper Cutting [abstract]. Society for Range Management and Weed Science Society of America Annual Meeting Program Guide. O-9.
A new Splash and Sheet Erosion Equation for Rangelands 1957 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Wei, H., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Guertin, D.P., Spaeth, K., Pierson Jr, F.B., Nichols, M.H., Moffet, C.A. 2009. A new Splash and Sheet Erosion Equation for Rangelands. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 73:1386-1392.
Hydrologic and erosional impacts of altered fire regimes and plant invasions - (Abstract Only)
Pierson Jr, F.B., Stone, J.J. 2008. Hydrologic and Erosional Impacts of Altered Fire Regimes and Plant Invasions. Wildfire and Invasive Plants in American Deserts, Society for Range Management, Reno, NV, December 9-11, 2008.
Assessing the benefits of grazing land conservation practices - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Weltz, M.A., Jolley, L., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Goodrich, D.C., Pierson Jr, F.B., Speath, K., Kiniry, J.R., Arnold, J.G., Bubenheim, D., Hernandez, M., Wei, H. 2008. Assessing the benefits of grazing land conservation practices. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 63:214-217.
Event to multidecadal persistence in rainfall and runoff in southeast Arizona 1908 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Goodrich, D.C., Unkrich, C.L., Keefer, T.O., Nichols, M.H., Stone, J.J., Levick, L., Scott, R.L. 2008. Event to multidecadal persistence in rainfall and runoff in southeast Arizona. Water Resour. Res., 44, W05S14, doi:10.1029/2007WR006222.
A Dual-Monte-Carlo Approach to Estimate Model Uncertainty and its Application to the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model 1914 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Wei, H., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Breshears, D.P. 2008. A dual-monte-carlo approach to estimate model uncertainty and its application to the rangeland hydrology and erosion model. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Bio. Eng. 51(2): 515-520.
Long-term precipitation database, Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, United States 1864 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Goodrich, D.C., Keefer, T.O., Unkrich, C.L., Nichols, M.H., Osborn, H.B., Stone, J.J., Smith, J.R. 2008. Long-term precipitation database, Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, United States. Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W05S04, doi:10.1029/2006WR005782.
Long-term runoff database, Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, United States 1888 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stone, J.J., Nichols, M.H., Goodrich, D.C., Buono, J. 2008. Long-term runoff database, Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, United States. Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W05S05, doi:10.1029/2006WR005733.
Rainfall intensity-dependent infiltration rates on rangeland rainfall simulator plots - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Stone, J.J., Paige, G.B., Hawkins, R.H. 2008. Rainfall intensity-dependent infiltration rates on rangeland rainfall simulator plots. Transactions of the ASABE. 15(1): 45-53.
Sediment database, Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, United States 1853 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nichols, M.H., Stone, J.J., Nearing, M.A. 2008. Sediment database, Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, United States. Water Resources Research. Vol. 44, W05S06, doi:10.1029/2006WR005682.
Preface to special section on Fifty Years of Research and Data Collection: U.S. Department of Agriculture Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1930 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Moran, M.S., Emmerich, W.E., Goodrich, D.C., Heilman, P., Holifield Collins, C.D., Keefer, T.O., Nearing, M.A., Nichols, M.H., Renard, K.G., Scott, R.L., Smith, J.R., Stone, J.J., Unkrich, C.L., Wong, J.K. 2008. Preface to special section on Fifty Years of Research and Data Collection: U.S. Department of Agriculture Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed. Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, W05S01, doi:10.1029/2007WR006083.
Sediment yields from unit-source semi-arid watersheds at Walnut Gulch 1893 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nearing, M.A., Nichols, M.H., Stone, J.J., Renard, K.G., Simanton, J.R. 2008. Sediment yields from unit-source semi-arid watersheds at Walnut Gulch. Water Resources Research. Vol. 43, W06426, doi:10.1029/2006WR005692.
A New Sensitivity Analysis Framework for Model Evaluation and Improvement Using a Case Study of the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model 1835 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Wei, H., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J. 2007. A new sensitivity analysis framework for model evaluation and improvement using a case study of the rangeland hydrology and erosion model. Transactions of the ASABE. 50(3): 945¿953.
Dwepp: a Dynamic Soil Erosion Model Based on Wepp Source Terms 1819 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Bulygina, N.S., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J., Nichols, M.H. 2007. Dwepp: a dynamic soil erosion model based on wepp source terms. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 32:998-1012.
Defining Boundaries Across Borders: a Case Study Extending a Major Land Resource Area into Mexico. 1708 - (Proceedings)
Macewen, R., Mann, R.S., Heilman, P., Stone, J.J., Melgoza Castillo, A., Guertin, D.P. 2005. Defining boundaries across borders: a case study extending a major land resource area into mexico. Proc. Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago II Conf., Connecting Mountain Islands and Desert Seas, May 11-14, Tucson, AZ, pp. 525-528.
Evaluation of Post-Wildfire Runoff and Erosion on Semiarid Ecological Sites 1626 - (Proceedings)
Paige, G.B., Stone, J.J., Guertin, D.P. 2005. Evaluation of post-wildfire runoff and erosion on semiarid ecological sites. Proc. Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago II Conf., Connecting Mountain Islands and Desert Seas, May 11-14, Tucson, AZ, 536-538.
Erosion Prediction 1629 - (Book / Chapter)
Nearing, M.A., Renard, K.G., Nichols, M.H., Stone, J.J. 2005. Erosion prediction. In: Stan Trimble (editor). Encyclopedia of Water Science. p. 145-152.
Erosion Mechanical Control 1662 - (Other)
Nichols, M.H., Renard, K.G., Nearing, M.A., Stone, J.J. 2005. Erosion mechanical control. Online Encyclopedia of Water Science. 1(1). Available: http://www2.dekker.com/sdek/abstract~db=enc~content=a713595839.
Instrumentation and Research at the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1611 - (Proceedings)
Nichols, M.H., Stone, J.J., Keefer, T.O., Smith, J.R., Moran, M.S., Renard, K.G. 2004. Instrumentation and research at the usda-ars walnut gulch experimental watershed. Proceedings Internat'l. Instrumented Watershed Sym., June 22-25, 2004, Edmonton, Canada, 14 p.
Working Smarter: Research and Decision Support Systems in Mexican Agriculture 1628 - (Book / Chapter)
Heilman, P., Stone, J.J., Sanchez-Cohen, I., Rodriquez, H., Mann, R. 2004. Working smarter: Research and decision support systems in mexican agriculture In: C. Richardson and A. Baez editors. Modeling And Remote Sensing Applied To Agriculture (U.S. And Mexico). Texas A and M Press. College Station, TX. p. 212-236.
Cd-Southwest Watershed Research Center Online Data Access 1606 - (Other)
Nichols, M.H., Anson, E., Stone, J.J., Unkrich, C.L., Keefer, T.O., Wong, J.K. 2004. Southwest Watershed Research Center online data access. Southwest Watershed Research Center Web Site. Available: http://www.tucson.ars.ag.gov
Rangeland Monitoring and Prediction at Ranch to Regional Scales 1614 - (Proceedings)
Moran, M.S., Thoma, D., Hernandez, M., Heilman, P., Stone, J.J., Starks, P.J., Arnold, J.G., Kiniry, J.R., Richardson, C.W., Rango, A., Herrick, J.E., Peters, D.C., Havstad, K.M. 2004. Rangeland monitoring and prediction at ranch to regional scales. Proceedings Society for Range Management Meeting, Jan. 23-30, 2004. Salt Lake City, UT. p. 1.
Runoff and Erosion on a Semi-Arid Grassland after a Wildfire 1538 - (Proceedings)
Paige, G.B., Stone, J.J., Guertin, D.P., Mcgee, R., Blumenfeld, H. 2003. Second International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress: Fifth Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology: [CD-ROM]. American Meteorology Society: The Conference Exchange.
Stochastic Daily Rainfall Generation in Southeast Arizona; An Example from Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed 1554 - (Proceedings)
Proc. 1st Interagency Conf. on Research in the Watershed, Oct. 27-30, 2003, Benson, AZ., pp. 139-145.
Variable Rainfall Intensity Rainfall Simulator Experiments on Semi-Arid Rangelands 1521 - (Proceedings)
Stone, J.J., Paige, G.B. 2003. Variable rainfall intensity rainfall simulator experiments on semi-arid rangelands. Proceedings First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, Oct. 27-30, 2003, Benson, AZ., pp.83-88.
The Walnut Gulch Rainfall Simulator: a Computer Controlled Variable Intensity Rainfall Simulator 1444 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Paige, G.B., Stone, J.J., Smith, J.R., Kennedy, J.R. 2004. The walnut gulch rainfall simulator: A computer controlled variable intensity rainfall simulator. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 20(1):25-31.
Infiltration and Runoff Response from a Complex Soil Plot 1308 - (Proceedings) - (01-Feb-00)
Capitulo 2. Planeacion DE Inverstigacion Con Simuladores DE Lluvia 1277 - (Book / Chapter) - (01-Jun-99)
Capitulo 5. Analisis DE Informacion En Estudios Con Simuladores DE Lluvia 1279 - (Book / Chapter) - (01-Jun-99)
Uso DE Lluvia Artificial Para Parametrizar Modelos DE Procesos Hidrologicos 1275 - (Book / Chapter) - (01-Jun-99)
Capitulo 1. Generalidades Sobre Simulacion DE Lluvia 1276 - (Book / Chapter) - (01-Jun-99)
Capitulo 6. Estimacion DE Parametros Para La Modelacion Del Escurrimiento Superficial Y Erosion Hidrica 1280 - (Book / Chapter) - (01-Jun-99)
Influence of Gis-Based Watershed Characterization on the Prediction of Runoff from Southwest Rangelands 1253 - (Proceedings) - (18-May-99)
Evaluating the Effects of Vegetation Variability on Modeling Runoff and Erosion Processes on a Grassland Watershed in Southeastern Arizona 1242 - (Abstract Only) - (14-Mar-99)
The Potential for Cooperation on Range Research in the Southwestern Us and Northern Mexico to Support Conservation Planning 1227 - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (14-Mar-99)
Soil Erosion by Surface Water Flow on a Stony, Semiarid Hillslope - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (03-Nov-98)
Using Measured Data and Expert Opinion in a Multiple Objective Decision Support System for Semiarid Rangelands 1127 - (Peer Reviewed Journal) - (08-Aug-97)
Overview of a Decision Support System for the Evaluation of Landfill Cover Designs - (Proceedings) - (28-Sep-96)
Infiltration and Runoff Plot Studies on Rangelands: Rainfall Simulator Experiments - (Proceedings) - (29-Jul-96)
Measurement Methods to Identify and Quantify Spatial Variability of Infiltration on Rangelands - (Proceedings) - (22-Jul-96)
Infiltration - Scale Interactions - (Proceedings) - (22-Jul-96)
Runoff Estimation on Agricultural Fields - (Book / Chapter) - (04-Jan-96)
A Decision Tool for Selecting Trench Cap Designs - (Proceedings) - (12-Dec-95)
Preliminary Evaluation of Rangelands in the Southwest United States Using Aprototype Decision Support System - (Proceedings) - (07-Oct-95)
A Decision Support System for the Evaluation of Shallow Land Waste Disposal Trench Cap Designs - (Proceedings) - (23-Jul-95)
Chapter 4 Hillslope Surface Hydrology - Wepp - (Government Publication) - (15-Jul-95)
Final Report on Testing of the Prototype Decision Support System Against the Hill Air Force Base Cover Demonstration Study - (Government Publication) - (30-Oct-94)
Last Modified: 9/1/2005
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