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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Stephen T Lee
Research Chemist


Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)
Activation and desensitization of peripheral muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selected, naturally-occurring pyridine alkaloids -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Cook, D., Kem, W.R. 2016. Activation and desensitization of peripheral muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by selected, naturally-occurring pyridine alkaloids. Toxins. 8:204.
A swainsonine survey of North American Astragalus and Oxytropis taxa implicated as locoweeds Reprint Icon -
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Stonecipher, C.A., Welsh, S.L. 2016. A swainsonine survey of North American Astragalus and Oxytropis taxa implicated as locoweeds. Toxicon. 118:104-111.
Studies in regard to the classification and putative toxicity of Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis) in Brazil Reprint Icon -
Lima, E.F., Medeiros, R.M., Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Kaehler, M., Santos-Barbosa, J.M., Riet-Correa, F. 2016. Studies in regard to the classification and putative toxicity of Fridericia japurensis (Arrabidaea japurensis) in Brazil. Toxicon. 115:22-27.
Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report -
White snakeroot poisoning in goats: Variations in toxicity with different plant chemotypes Reprint Icon -
Davis, T.Z., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Evans, T.J., Grum, D.S., Buck, S., Meyerholtz, K.A. 2016. White snakeroot poisoning in goats: Variations in toxicity with different plant chemotypes. Research in Veterinary Science. 106:29-36.
Phylogenetic examination of two chemotypes of Lupinus leucophyllus -
Mott, I.W., Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Stonecipher, C.A., Panter, K.E. 2016. Phylogenetic examination of two chemotypes of Lupinus leucophyllus. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 65:57-65.
Determination of toxicity in rabbits and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate in four Palicourea (Rubiaceae) species from the Amazonas state, Brazil Reprint Icon -
Carvalho, F.K., Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Taylor, C.M., Oliveira, J.B., Riet-Correa, F. 2016. Determination of toxicity in rabbits and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate in four Palicourea (Rubiaceae) species from the Amazonas state, Brazil. Toxicon. 109:42-44.
Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep with non-toxic doses of the plant and ruminal content -
Becker, M., Carneiro, F.M., Oliveira, L.P., Silva, M.I., Riet-Correa, F., Lee, S.T., Pescador, C.A., Nakazato, L., Colodel, E.M. 2016. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia pubiflora in sheep with non-toxic doses of the plant and ruminal content. Ciencia Rural. 46(4):674-680.
Evaluation of the stability of benzofuran ketones in rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) under different storage conditions -
An evaluation of the toxicity of white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) and rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) in a lactating mouse model -
Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity -
Green, B.T., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z. 2015. Differences between Angus and Holstein cattle in the Lupinus leucophyllus induced inhibition of fetal activity. Toxicon. 106:1-6.
Identification of the toxic components in white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) -
Davis, T.Z., Lee, S.T., Collett, M.G., Stegelmeier, B.L., Green, B.T., Grum, D.S. 2015. Identification of the toxic components in white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima). International Symposium on Poisonous Plants. 9:194-200.
Species susceptibility to locoweed poisoning and evaluation of chicks as a small animal model of poisoning -
Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Panter, K.E. 2015. Species susceptibility to locoweed poisoning and evaluation of chicks as a small animal model of poisoning. International Symposium on Poisonous Plants. 9:126-129.
Spontaneous and experimental poisoning of cattle by Palicourea aeneofusca in the region of Pernambuco and introduction of conditioned food aversion -
Brito, L.B., Albuquerque, R.F., Rocha, B.P., Albuquerque, S.S., Lee, S.T., Medeiros, R.M., Riet-Correa, F., Mendonca, F.D. 2016. Spontaneous and experimental poisoning of cattle by Palicourea aeneofusca in the region of Pernambuco and introduction of conditioned food aversion. Ciencia Rural. 46(1):138-143.
A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the hedgehog inhibitors cyclopamine and cyclopamine derivatives -
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D. 2015. A monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the hedgehog inhibitors cyclopamine and cyclopamine derivatives. International Symposium on Poisonous Plants. 9:207-211.
A rapid HPLC-APCI-MS method to detect fluoroacetate in plants -
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J.A., Allen, J.G., Colegate, S.M., Lima, F.G., Gardner, D.R. 2015. A rapid HPLC-APCI-MS method to detect fluoroacetate in plants. International Symposium on Poisonous Plants. 9:158-163.
Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Mccollum, I.J. 2015. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization. International Symposium on Poisonous Plants. 9:296-300.
The role of chemistry in poisonous plant research: Current status and future prospects -
Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Colegate, S.M. 2015. The role of chemistry in poisonous plant research: Current status and future prospects. International Symposium on Poisonous Plants. 9:152-157.
The clearance of delphinium alkaloids from the serum of cattle -
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Davis, T.Z., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T. 2015. The clearance of delphinium alkaloids from the serum of cattle. International Symposium on Poisonous Plants. 9:296-306.
The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z. 2015. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle. Research in Veterinary Science. 100:239-244.
Toxicity of White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) and chemical extracts of White Snakeroot in goats -
Davis, T.Z., Lee, S.T., Collett, M.G., Stegelmeier, B.L., Green, B.T., Buck, S.R., Pfister, J.A. 2015. Toxicity of White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) and chemical extracts of White Snakeroot in goats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 63(7):2092-2097.
A survey of tremetone, dehydrotremetone and structurally related compounds in Isocoma spp. (Goldenbush) in the southwestern United States Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R., Johnson, R.L., Stonecipher, C.A. 2015. A survey of tremetone, dehydrotremetone and structurally related compounds in Isocoma spp. (Goldenbush) in the southwestern United States. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 63(3):872-879.
The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats -
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R. 2015. The effect of intermittent dosing of Nicotiana glauca on teratogenesis in goats. Toxicon. 93:119-124.
The effect of ensiling and haymaking on the concentrations of steroidal saponin in two Brachiaria grass species -
De Lima, F.G., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Miyagi, E.S., Costa, G.L., De Silva, R.D., Fioravanti, M.S. 2015. The effect of ensiling and haymaking on the concentrations of steroidal saponin in two Brachiaria grass species. Ciencia Rural. 45(5):858-863.
Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep -
Nascimento, E.M., Medeiros, R.M., Lee, S.T., Riet-Correa, F. 2014. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 34(10):963-966.
A study on embryonic death in goats due to Nicotiana glauca ingestion Reprint Icon -
Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R. 2014. A study on embryonic death in goats due to Nicotiana glauca ingestion. Toxicon. 90:64-69.
Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington. -
Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T. 2015. Lupine consumption by cattle in the scablands of Eastern Washington.. International Symposium on Poisonous Plants. 9:250-256.
Studies on the teratogenicity of anabasine in a rat model Reprint Icon -
Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Knoppel, E.L., Green, B.T., Hammond, C.K., Hammond, Z.J., Pfister, J.A. 2014. Studies on the teratogenicity of anabasine in a rat model. Toxicon. 87:32-37.
Cardiac fibrosis associated to the poisoning of Amorimia septentrionalis in cattle -
Albuquerque, S.S., Rocha, B.P., Almeida, V.M., Oliveira, J.S., Riet-Correa, F., Lee, S.T., Neto, J.E., Mendoca, F.S. 2014. Cardiac fibrosis associated to the poisoning of Amorimia septentrionalis in cattle. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 34(5):433-437.
Monofluoroacetate-containing plants that are potentially toxic to livestock Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Allen, J.G., Colegate, S.M., Riet-Correa, F., Taylor, C.M. 2014. Monofluoroacetate-containing plants that are potentially toxic to livestock. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(30):7345-7354.
Cyclopamine: From cyclops lambs to cancer treatment Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Garrossian, M., Chang, C.T. 2014. Cyclopamine: From cyclops lambs to cancer treatment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(30):7355-7362.
Crude protein supplementation to reduce lupine consumption by pregnant cattle in the scablands of eastern Washington. Reprint Icon -
Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Moterram, E. 2014. Crude protein supplementation to reduce lupine consumption by pregnant cattle in the scablands of eastern Washington. International Journal of Poisonous Plant Research. 3(1):26-32.
Detection of toxic monofluoroacetate in Palicourea species -
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Taylor, C.M., Bassuner, B., Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R. 2014. Detection of toxic monofluoroacetate in Palicourea species. Toxicon. 80:9-16.
Identification of the quinolizidine alkaloids in Sophora leachiana Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J. 2014. Identification of the quinolizidine alkaloids in Sophora leachiana. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 54:1-4.
Plant alkaloids that cause developmental defects through the disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E. 2013. Plant alkaloids that cause developmental defects through the disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews. 99:235-246.
Physiological and serum biochemical changes associated with rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats -
Davis, T.Z., Green, B.T., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A. 2013. Physiological and serum biochemical changes associated with rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats. Toxicon. 76:247-254.
Evaluation of solar exposure on the experimental intoxication by Brachiaria decumbens in sheep -
Porto, M.R., Saturnino, K.C., Lima, E.M., Lee, S.T., Lemos, R.A., Marcolongo-Pereira, C., Riet-Correa, F., Castro, M.B. 2013. Evaluation of solar exposure on the experimental intoxication by Brachiaria decumbens in sheep. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 33(8):1009-1015.
Plant toxins that affect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: A review -
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T. 2013. Plant toxins that affect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: A review. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 26(8):1129-1138.
Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses -
Davis, T.Z., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Hall, J.O. 2013. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses. Toxicon. 73:88-95.
Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep -
Becker, M., Caldeira, F.H., Carneiro, F.M., Oliveira, L.P., Tokarnia, C.H., Riet-Correa, F., Lee, S.T., Colodel, E.M. 2013. Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 33(9):1049-1056.
A toxicokinetic comparison of two species of low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle -
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T. 2013. A toxicokinetic comparison of two species of low larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in cattle. Research in Veterinary Science. 95(2):612-615.
Piperidine, pyridine alkaloid inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2013. Piperidine, pyridine alkaloid inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 58:8-13.
Alkaloid profiles of Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophllum gypsophilum, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Styphnolobium affine, and Styphnolobium japonicum previously classified as Sophora species Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R. 2013. Alkaloid profiles of Dermatophyllum arizonicum, Dermatophllum gypsophilum, Dermatophyllum secundiflorum, Styphnolobium affine, and Styphnolobium japonicum previously classified as Sophora species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 49:87-93.
Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of y-Coniceine and N-Methylconiine enantiomers -
Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Jordan, G.T., Zhang, Q., Panter, K.E., Hughes, D., Cheng-Wei, T.C., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R. 2013. Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of y-Coniceine and N-Methylconiine enantiomers. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 23:616-21.
Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia (Macagnia) septentrionalis in goats -
Duarte, A.L., Medeiros, R.M., Carvalho, F.K., Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Costa, V.M., Riet-Correa, F. 2014. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia (Macagnia) septentrionalis in goats. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 34(2):220-223.
Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia (Mascagnia) septentrionalis in goats -
Duarte, A.L., Medeiros, R.M., Carvalho, F.K., Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Costa, V.M., Riet-Correa, F. 2014. Induction and transfer of resistance to poisoning by Amorimia (Mascagnia) septentrionalis in goats. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 34(2):220-223.
The alkaloid profiles of Sophora nuttalliana and Sophora stenophylla -
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Molyneux, R.J., Marcolongo-Pereira, C., Stonecipher, C.A., Gardner, D.R. 2013. The alkaloid profiles of Sophora nuttalliana and Sophora stenophylla. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 48: 58-64.
Fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells, and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2013. Fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells, and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 344:1-13.
Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum from the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia -
Gao, X., Cook, D., Ralphs, M., Yan, L., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Han, B., Zhao, M. 2012. Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum from the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 45: 79-85.
Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum form the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia -
Detection of monofluoroacetate in Palicourea and Amorimia species Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J.A., Anderson, W.R., Lima, F.G., Gardner, D.R. 2012. Detection of monofluoroacetate in Palicourea and Amorimia species. Toxicon. 60(5): 791-6.
The resolution of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats -
Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Hall, J.O. 2013. The resolution of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) poisoning in goats. International Journal of Poisonous Plant Research. 2:27-33.
Veratrum-induced placental dysplasia in sheep -
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Cook, D. 2012. Veratrum-induced placental dysplasia in sheep. International Journal of Poisonous Plant Research. 2:54-62.
Evaluation of drying methods and toxicity of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in goats -
Lee, S.T., Davis, T.Z., Cook, D., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2012. Evaluation of drying methods and toxicity of rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in goats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(19): 4849-53.
Development of a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the hedgehog inhibitors cyclopamine and cyclopamine-KAAD -
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Zhang, J., Change, C.T. 2012. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for the hedgehog inhibitors cyclopamine and cyclopamine-KAAD. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 66: 282-6.
Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens Reprint Icon -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Brown, D.R. 2012. Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 50(6): 2049-55.
A pharmacodynamic comparison of piperidine and pyridine alkaloid actions at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) Reprint Icon -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E. 2012. A pharmacodynamic comparison of piperidine and pyridine alkaloid actions at fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Experimental Biology. 26: 1048.6.
Poisonous Plants of the United States Reprint Icon -
Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Davis, T.Z., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2012. Poisonous Plants of the United States. In: Guptra, R.C., editor. Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles. 2nd edition. Boston, MA: Academic Press. p. 1031-79.
Benzofuran ketone dosage-dependent rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in a caprine model -
Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus Reprint Icon -
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Stonecipher, C.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Panter, K.E. 2011. Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus. Phytochemical Analysis. 23(3): 278-84.
Relative feeding and development of armyworm, Mythimna (Pseudaletia) unipuncta (Haworth), on switchgrass and corn, and its potential effects on switchgrass grown for biomass -
Prasifka, J.R., Bradshaw, J.D., Lee, S.T., Gray, M.E. 2011. Relative feeding and development of armyworm, Mythimna (Pseudaletia) unipuncta (Haworth), on switchgrass and corn, and its potential effects on switchgrass grown for biomass. Journal of Economic Entomology. 104(5): 1561-7.
Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique to diagnose white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) poisoning in a cow -
Meyerholtz, K.A., Burcham, G.N., Miller, M.A., Wilson, C.R., Hooser, S.B., Lee, S.T. 2011. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique to diagnose white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) poisoning in a cow. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 23:775-9.
Detection of high levels of pyrrolizidine-N-oxides in the endangered plant cryptantha crassipes (Terlingua creek cat's-eye)using HPLC-ESI-MS -
Williams, M.T., Warnock, B.J., Betz, J.M., Beck, J.J., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Colegate, S.M. 2011. Detection of high levels of pyrrolizidine-N-oxides in the endangered plant cryptantha crassipes (Terlingua creek cat's-eye)using HPLC-ESI-MS. Phytochemical Analysis. 22(3): 532-540
Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine -
Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Motteram, E.S. 2011. Influence of grazing pressure on cattle consumption of the teratogenic plant velvet lupine. Professional Animal Scientist. 27(2):101-8.
Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus -
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z., Panter, K.E. 2011. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus and Lupinus leucophyllus. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 97:566-71.
Tremetone and structurally related compounds in white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima): A plant associated with trembles and milk sickness -
Lee, S.T., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R., Colegate, S.M., Cook, D., Green, B.T., Meyerholtz, K.A., Wilson, C.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Evans, T.J. 2010. Tremetone and structurally related compounds in white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima): A plant associated with trembles and milk sickness. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(15):8560-65. DOI: 10.1021/jf1012456.
Distribution of Delphinium occidentale chemotypes and their potential toxicity -
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Lee, S.T. 2011. Distribution of Delphinium occidentale chemotypes and their potential toxicity. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. p. 606-11.
Determination of the relative toxicity of enantiomers with cell-based assays -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Kem, W. 2011. Determination of the relative toxicity of enantiomers with cell-based assays. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 100:581-7.
Measurement of steroidal saponins in Panicum and Brachiaria grasses in the USA and Brazil -
Lee, S.T., Mitchell, R., Gardner, D.R., Tokarnia, C.H., Riet-Correa, F. 2011. Measurement of steroidal saponins in Panicum and Brachiaria grasses in the USA and Brazil. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge,MA. CAB International. 20:142-4.
The physiological effects and toxicokinetics of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) alkaloids in cattle -
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E. 2011. The physiological effects and toxicokinetics of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) alkaloids in cattle. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. p. 557-65.
The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Reprint Icon -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Kem, W.R. 2010. The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Experimental Biology.
Experimemntal Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) Toxicosis in Goats -
Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Hall, J.O. 2010. Experimemntal Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) Toxicosis in Goats. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22:570-577.
Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States -
Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Ralphs, M.H., Davis, T.Z., Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D. 2011. Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 36:236-42.
Dose-response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep -
Welch, K.D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Cook, D. 2011. Dose-Response evaluation of Veratrum californicum in sheep. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 37:243-50.
Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time -
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z. 2010. Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time. Rangelands. 32(2):14-7.
Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Reprint Icon -
Green, B.T., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Welch, K.D., Cook, D., Pfister, J.A., Kem, W.R. 2010. Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 32:383-390. Published online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2010.01.011
The comparative pathology of locoweed poisoning in horses and other livestock -
Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Panter, K.E. 2011. The comparative pathology of locoweed poisoning in horses and other livestock. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 48:309-10.
Colic Caused by Panicum maximum Toxicosis in Equidae in Northern Brazil -
Cerqueira, V.D., Riet-Correa, G., Barbosa, J.D., Duarte, M.D., Oliveira, C.M., De Oliverira, C.A., Tokarnia, C., Lee, S.T., Riet-Correa, F. 2009. Colic Caused by Panicum maximum Toxicosis in Equidae in Northern Brazil. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 21:882-888
The Biogeographical Distribution of Duncecap Larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) Chemotypes and Their Potential Toxicity Reprint Icon -
Cook, D., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Lee, S.T. 2009. The Biogeographical Distribution of Duncecap Larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) Chemotypes and Their Potential Toxicity. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35:6443-652
A Quantitative Method for the Measurement of Three Benzofuran Ketones in Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and White Snakeroot (Ageratine altissima) by HPLC -
Lee, S.T., Davis, T.Z., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Evans, T.J. 2009. A Quantitative Method for the Measurement of Three Benzofuran Ketones in Rayless Goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) and White Snakeroot (Ageratine altissima) by HPLC. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57(12):5639-5642
Cyclopamine-induced Synophthalmia in Sheep: Defining a Critical Window and Toxicokinetic Evaluation Reprint Icon -
Welch, K.D., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Cook, D. 2009. Cyclopamine-induced Synophthalmia in Sheep: Defining a Critical Window and Toxicokinetic Evaluation. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 29:414-421. (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/jat.1427
Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Steroidal Saponins in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Mitchell, R., Wang, Z., Heiss, C., Gardner, D.R., Azadi, P. 2009. Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Steroidal Saponins in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57(6):2599-2604. DOI: 10.1021/jf803907y
Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Gay, C., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Motteram, E., Cook, D., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z. 2008. Lupine Induced "Crooked Calf Disease": The Last 20 Years. Rangelands. 30(6): 13-8.
Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands Reprint Icon -
Davis, T.Z., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E. 2009. Selected Common Poisonous Plants of the United States' Rangelands. Rangelands. 31(1):38-44 DOI:10.2111/1551-501X-31.1.38
Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State Reprint Icon -
Panter, K.E., Motteram, E., Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Platt, T.E., Gay, C.C. 2009. Cooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State. Rangelands 31(1):10-15. http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.2111/1551-501X-31.1.45?
Value of Plant Diversity for Diet Mixing and Sequencing in Herbivores Reprint Icon -
Provenza, F.D., Villalba, J.J., Wiedmeier, R.W., Layman, T., Owens, J., Lisonbee, L., Clemensen, A., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T. 2009. Value of Plant Diversity for Diet Mixing and Sequencing in Herbivores. Rangelands. 31(1):45-49. DOI:10.2111/1551-501X-31.1.45
The Alkaloid Profiles of Lupinus sulphureus Reprint Icon -
Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z., Panter, K.E. 2009. The Alkaloid Profiles of Lupinus sulphureus. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 57(4):1646-1653.
Serum Elimination Profiles of Methyllycaconitine and Deltaline in Cattle Following Oral Administration of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) Reprint Icon -
Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Gardner, D.R., Stegelmeier, B.L., Davis, T.Z., Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2009. Serum Elimination Profiles of Methyllycaconitine and Deltaline in Cattle Following Oral Administration of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). American Journal of Veterinary Research, 70(7):926-931.
Steroselective Potencies and Relative Toxicities of Coniine Enantiomers -
Lee, S.T., Green, B.T., Welch, K.D., Pfister, J.A., Panter, K.E. 2008. Steroselective Potencies and Relative Toxicities of Coniine Enantiomers. Chemical Research in Toxicology. 21(10): 2061-2064. DOI 10.1021/tx800229w
Effects of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) on Heart Rate and Electrically Evoked Electromyographic Response of the External Anal Sphincter in Cattle. Reprint Icon -
Green, B.T., Pfister, J.A., Cook, D., Welch, K.D., Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Knoppel, E.L., Panter, K.E. 2009. Effects of Larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi) on Heart Rate and Electrically Evoked Electromyographic Response of the External Anal Sphincter in Cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 70(4):539-546
The effect of body condition on serum concentrations of two teratogenic alkaloids (anagyrine and ammodendrine) from Lupines (Lupinus spp.) that cause crooked calf disease. Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Welch, K.D. 2008. The Effect of Body Condition on Serum Concentrations of Two Teratogenic Alkaloids (Anagyrine and Ammodendrine) From Lupines (Lupinus spp.) That Cause Crooked Calf Disease. Journal of Animal Science. 86:2771-2778 doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0610.
Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Chang, C.T., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J. 2008. Separation and Measurement of Plant Alkaloid Enantiomers by RP-HPLC Analysis of their Fmoc-Alanine Analogs. Phytochemical Analysis, 19:395-402. DOI: 10.1002/pca.1064.
Effects of Experience and Lactation on Lupine Consumption by Cattle -
Pfister, J.A., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Motteram, E.S., Gay, C. 2008. Effects of Experience and Lactation on Lupine Consumption by Cattle. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61:240-244 March 2008
Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Cook, D., Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Ralphs, M.H., Motteram, E.S., Pfister, J.A., Gay, C. 2007. Lupine induced "Crooked Calf Disease" in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles in Lupinus sulphureus, Lupinus leucophyllus, and Lupinus sericeus. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Web release 11/27/2007 Article DOI: 10.1021/jf0723110 Journal releae Volume 55, Number 26, pp. 10649-10655.
Phytochemicals: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly? -
Molyneux, R.J., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., James, L.F. 2007. Phytochemicals: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly?. Phytochemistry.68(22-24):2973-2985.
Separation Of Enantiomeric Mixtures Of Alkaloids And Their Biological Evaluation Reprint Icon -
Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E. 2007. Separation Of Enantiomeric Mixtures Of Alkaloids And Their Biological Evaluation. In: Bioactive Natural Products: Detection, Isolation, and Structural Determination, Second Edition, ISBN: 9780849372582, ISBN: 0849372585, Chpt. 7, pp. 209-219.
Important poisonous plants of the United States -
Panter, K.E., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F. 2007. Important poisonous plants of the United States. Veterinary Toxicology: Basic and Clinical Principles, Chpt. 66 pp. 825-872.
Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season -
Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E., Cook, D., Gardner, D.R. 2006. Alkaloid Profiles, Concentration and Pools in Velvet Lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) Over the Growing Season. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 33:75-84
Effects of experience and lactation on lupine consumption by cattle -
Pfister, J.A., Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Motteram, E.S., Gay, C.C. 2007. Effects of experience and lactation on lupine consumption by cattle. Poisonous Plants Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 68, pp. 407 - 410.
Research on Lupine-Induced "Crooked Calf Disease" at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: Past, Present and Future -
Panter, K.E., James, L.F., Wierenga, T.L., Gay, C., Motteram, E., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Ralphs, M.H., Stegelmeier, B.L. 2007. Research on Lupine-Induced "Crooked Calf Disease" at the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: Past, Present and Future. Poisonous Plants Global Research and Solutions. Chpt. 10, pp. 58 - 65.
N-ALKYLATED DERIVATIVES OF SWAINSONINE -
Garrossian, M., Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R. 2007. N-alkylated derivatives of swainsonine. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 84, pp. 492 - 497.
THE EFFECTS OF VACCINATION ON RIDDELLIINE TOXICITY IN RATS -
Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. The effects of vaccination on riddelliine toxicity in rats. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 15, pp. 89 - 93.
CUTLEAF NIGHTSHADE (SOLANUM TRIFLORUMM NUTT.) TOXICITY IN HORSES AND HAMSTERS -
Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Cutleaf nightshade (solanum triflorumm nutt.) toxicity in horses and hamsters. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 50, pp. 296 - 300.
PHEASANT'S EYE (ADONIS AESTAVALIS) TOXICITY IN LIVESTOCK AND RODENTS -
Stegelmeier, B.L., Hall, J.O., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Pheasant's eye (adonis aestavalis) toxicity in livestock and rodents. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions. Chpt. 79, pp. 463 - 468.
SWITCHGRASS (PANICUM VIRGATUM) TOXICITY IN RODENTS, SHEEP, GOATS AND HORSES -
Stegelmeier, B.L., Elmore, S.A., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Switchgrass (panicum virgatum) toxicity in rodents, sheep, goats and horses. Poisonous Plants Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 19,pp. 113 - 117.
THE COMPARATIVE PATHOLOGY OF LOCOWEED POISONING IN LIVESTOCK, WILDLIFE AND RODENTS -
Stegelmeier, B.L., Lee, S.T., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2007. The comparative pathology of locoweed poisoning in livestock, wildlife and rodents. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions. Chpt. 61, pp. 359 - 365.
CATTLE GRAZEing VELVET LUPINE (Lupinus leucophyllus): INFLUENCE OF ASSOCIATED FORAGES, ALKALOID LEVELS AND POPULATION CYCLEs -
Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E., Gay, C., Motteram, E., Lee, S.T. 2007. Cattle grazeing velvet lupine (lupinus leucophyllus): influence of associated forages, alkaloid levels and population cycles. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 67, pp. 401-406
HELIOTROPIUM EUROPAEUM ALKALOIDS: A QUATERNARY PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOID APPROACH TO ELISA DEVELOPMENT -
Lee, S.T., Knill, A., Michalewicz, A., Stevens, V., Colegate, S.M. 2007. Heliotropium europaeum alkaloids: a quaternary pyrrolizidine alkaloid approach to elisa development. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions,Chpt 81, pp. 476-480.
SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF TERATOGENIC PIPERIDINE ENANTIOMERS FROM NICOTIANA AND LUPINUS SPECIES -
Lee, S.T., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Chang, C.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A. 2007. Separation and isolation of teratogenic piperidine enantiomers from nicotiana and lupinus species. Poisonous Plant Global Research and Solutions, Chpt. 80, pp. 469 - 475.
RELATIVE TOXICITIES AND NEUROMUSCULAR NICOTINIC RECEPTOR AGONISTIC POTENCIES OF ANABASINE ENANTIOMERS AND ANABASEINE -
Lee, S.T., Wildeboer, K., Panter, K.E., Kem, W., Gardner, D.R., Molyneux, R.J., Chang, C.T., Soti, F., Pfister, J.A. 2006. Relative toxicities and neuromuscular nicotinic receptor agonistic potencies of anabasine enantiomers and anabaseine. Neurotoxicology and Teratology.
CATTLE CONSUMPTION OF VELVET LUPINE (LUPINUS LEUCOPHYLLUS) IN THE CHANNEL SCABLANDS OF EASTERN WASHINGTON -
Ralphs, M.H., Panter, K.E., Motteram, E., Lee, S.T. 2006. Cattle consumption of velvet lupine (lupinus leucophyllus) in the channel scablands of eastern washington. Rangeland Ecology and Management. 59:204-207.
LOCOWEED (OXYTROPIS SERICEA) INDUCED LESIONS IN MULE DEER (ODOCOILEIUS HEMIONUS) -
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Spraker, T.R. 2005. LOCOWEED (OXYTROPIS SERICEA) INDUCED LESIONS IN MULE DEER (ODOCOILEIUS HEMIONUS). Veterinary Pathology. 42(5): 566-78.
LOCOWEED (OXYTROPIS SERICEA)-INDUCED LESIONS IN MULE DEER (ODOCOILEIUS HEMIONUS) -
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Gardner, D.R., Panter, K.E., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A., Spraker, T.R. 2005. Locoweed (oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (odocoileius hemionus). Veterinary Pathology 42:566-578.
AMMODENDRINE AND N-METHYLAMMODENDRINE ENANTIOMERS: ISOLATION, OPTICAL ROTATION, AND TOXICITY -
Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E., Chang, C.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Garrossian, M. 2005. Ammodendrine and n-methylammodendrine enantiomers: isolation, optical rotation, and toxicity. Journal of Natural Products.
SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION AND HPLC-MS PROFILING OF PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS AND THEIR N-OXIDES: A CASE STUDY OF ECHIUM PLANTAGINEUM -
Colegate, S.M., Edgar, J.A., Knill, A.M., Lee, S.T. 2005. Solid-phase extraction and hplc-ms profiling of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their n-oxides: a case study of echium plantagineum. Phytochemical Analysis.
Solid-phase extraction and HPLC-MS profiling of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their n-oxides: A case study of echium plantagineum -
Colegate, S.M., Edgar, J.A., Knill, A.M., Lee, S.T. 2005. Solid-phase extraction and HPLC-MS profiling of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their n-oxides: A case study of echium plantagineum. Phytochemical Analysis. 16(2):108-119.
STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS OF AMMODENDRINE AND N-METHYL AMMODENDRINE ENANTIOMERS: ISOLATION, OPTICAL ROTATION, AND TOXICITY -
Lee, S.T., Molyneux, R.J., Panter, K.E., Chang, C., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Garrossian, M. 2005. Structure-activity relationships of ammodendrine and n-methyl ammodendrine enantiomers: isolation, optical rotation, and toxicity. Journal of Natural Products.
THE CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF INTERMITTENT LOCOWEED (OXYTROPIS SERICEA) POISONING IN SHEEP -
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2003. The clinical and morphological changes of intermittent locoweed (oxytropis sericea) poisoning in sheep. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
TOXICITY OF A PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOID, RIDDELLIINE, IN NEONATAL PIGS -
Stegelmeier, B.L., James, L.F., Panter, K.E., Molyneux, R.J., Gardner, D.R., Schoch, T.K., Lee, S.T., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J.A. 2003. Toxicity of a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, riddelliine, in neonatal pigs. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
CHARACTERIZATION OF STEROIDAL SAPOGENINS IN PANICUM VIRGATUM L. (SWITCHGRASS) -
Lee, S.T., Stegelmeier, B.L., Gardner, D.R., Vogel, K.P. 2003. Characterization of steroidal sapogenins in panicum virgatum l. (switchgrass). Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
THE DETECTION AND ESTIMATION OF PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS IN PLANTS AND FEEDS USING AN ELISA -
Lee, S.T., Schoch, T.K., Stegelmeier, B.L., Gardner, D.R., Than, K.A., Molyneux, R.J. 2003. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid measurement in plants, feeds, and food supplies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Poisonous Plants Symposium Proceedings.
DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR ISOCUPRESSIC ACID AND SERUM METABOLITES OF ISOCUPRESSIC ACID -
LEE, S.T., GARDNER, D.R., GARROSSIAN, M., PANTER, K.E., SERREQI, A.N., SCHOCH, T.K., WIERENGA, T.L. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR ISOCUPRESSIC ACID AND SERUM METABOLITES OF ISOCUPRESSIC ACID. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2003.
PREPARATIVE ISOLATION OF SWAINSONINE FROM LOCOWEED: EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION PROCEDURES -
GARDNER, D.R., LEE, S.T., MOLYNEUX, R.J., EDGAR, J.A. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION OF SWAINSONINE FROM LOCOWEEDS: EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION PROCEDURES. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS. 2003.
DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE VERATRUM PLANT TERATOGENS: CYCLOPAMINE AND JERVINE -
LEE, S.T., PANTER, K.E., GAFFIELD JR, W.P., STEGELMEIER, B.L. DEVEELOPMENT OF AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE PLANT TERATOGENS CYCLOPAMINE AND JERVINE. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2003.
EVALUATION OF VACCINATION AGAINST METHYLLYCACONITINE TOXICITY IN MICE -
Lee, S.T., Stegelmeier, B.L., Panter, K.E., Pfister, J.A., Gardner, D.R., Schoch, T.K., James, L.F. 2003. Evaluation of vaccination against methyyllycaconitine toxicity in mice. Journal of Animal Science.
EVALUATION OF VACCINATION AGAINST METHYLLYCACONITINE TOXICITY IN MICE -
LEE, S.T., STEGELMEIER, B.L., PANTER, K.E., PFISTER, J.A., GARDNER, D.R., SCHOCH, T.K., JAMES, L.F. EVALUATION OF ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION AGAINST METHYLLYCACONITINE TOXICITY IN MICE. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL SCIENCE 2003, 81:232-238.
THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STEROIDAL SAPOGENINS IN SWITCHGRASS -
LEE, S.T., STEGELMEIER, B.L., GARDNER, D.R., VOGEL, K.P. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STEROIDAL SAPOGENINS IN SWITCHGRASS. JOURNAL OF NATURAL TOXINS. 2001.
REPRODUCTIVE LOSSES TO POISONOUS PLANTS: INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES -
PANTER, K.E., JAMES, L.F., GARDNER, D.R., RALPHS, M.H., PFISTER, J.A., STEGELMEIER, B.L., LEE, S.T. REPRODUCTIVE LOSSES TO POISONOUS PLANTS: INFLUENCE OF MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES. JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT. 2002.
LARKSPUR POISONING: TOXICOLOGY AND ALKALOID STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS -
PANTER, K.E., MANNERS, G.D., JAMES, L.F., GARDNER, D.R., RALPHS, M.H., PFISTER, J.A., STEGELMEIER, B.L., LEE, S.T. LARKSPUR POISONING: TOXICOLOGY AND ALKALOID STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS. BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGY. 2002.
MANAGEMENT OF THREE TOXIC DELPHINIUM SPECIES BASED ON ALKALOID CONCENTRATIONS -
PFISTER, J.A., RALPHS, M.H., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L., MANNERS, G.D., PANTER, K.E., LEE, S.T. MANAGEMENT OF THREE TOXIC DELPHINIUM SPECIES BASED ON ALKALOID CONCENTRATIONS. BIOCHEMICAL SYSTEMATICS AND ECOLOGY. 2002.
DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR THE HEPATOTOXIC ALKALOIDS RIDDELLIINE AND RIDDELLIINE N-OXIDE -
LEE, S.T., SCHOCH, T.K., STEGELMEIER, B.L., GARDNER, D.R., THAN, K.A., MOLYNEUX, R.J. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR THE HEPATOTOXIC ALKALOIDS RIDDELLIINE AND RIDDELLIINE N-OXIDE. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2001.
ALKALOIDS AS ANTI-QUALITY FACTORS IN PLANTS ON WESTERN U.S. RANGELANDS -
PFISTER, J.A., PANTER, K.E., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L., RALPHS, M.H., MOLYNEUX, R.J., LEE, S.T. ALKALOIDS AS ANTI-QUALITY FACTORS IN PLANTS ON WESTERN U.S. RANGELANDS. JOURNAL OF RANGE MANAGEMENT. 2001.
DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR TOXIC LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM SPP.)ALKALOIDS -
LEE, S.T., SCHOCH, T.K., GARDNER, D.R., STEGELMEIER, B.L. DEVELOPMENT OF ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAYS FOR TOXIC LARKSPUR ALKALOIDS. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL FOOD & CHEMICAL. 2000.
THREE NEW TOXIC NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM THE LOW LARKSPUR DELPHINIUM NUTTALLIANUM -
GARDNER, D.R., MANNERS, G.D., PANTER, K.E., LEE, S.T., PFISTER, J.A. THREE NEW TOXIC NORDITERPENOID ALKALOIDS FROM THE LOW LARKSPUR DELPHINIUM NUTTALLIANUM PRITZ. JOURNAL OF NATURAL PRODUCTS. 2000.
Last Modified: 8/26/2016
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