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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Project Type: Appropriated

Start Date: Jun 14, 2005
End Date: Jun 08, 2010

This program researches fate of manure nutrients and bacterial pathogens in soil, plants, and air as affected by management and environment. Nutrient research determines nutrient fate and speciation, mineralization rates, and soil nutrient balances as affected by management, determines emissions and nutrient concentrations in litter inside the poultry house, determines effects of animal management, agronomic management, and environment on nutrient fate, soil properties, and water quality in watershed, and any fungicidal or phyto-hormonal effects of animal manure on plant pathogens and plant growth. Pathogen research develops an understanding of the occurrence, fate and transport of pathogenic microorganisms, particularly Salmonella, associated with manure in studies of swine lagoon effluent and broiler house litter. Effects of manure handling practices on Salmonella survival and proliferation will be determined. Determine the fate and transport of Salmonella and other manure-associated pathogens during and following land application.

Determine spatial variation of manure nutrients and emission of ammonia and other gases in the poultry house as a function of management, age of bird, diet, flocks of birds on same litter, and ambient humidity and temperatures. Develop a system for measuring fungicidal effects of animal manure on an array of important plant pathogens. Develop a system for isolating nutrient effects of animal manure from phyto-hormonal effects. Measure water quantity and quality in runoff from nine watersheds as a function of presence or absence of grazing and presence or absence of poultry litter fertilization. Over time in the watersheds, measure changes in soil quality, botanical composition, shallow well water quality, and the quantity and quality of runoff water. Determine manure nutrient’s fate in soil and changes in soil quality, and changes in soil nutrient concentrations for long term fertilization with poultry litter or swine effluent. Test effects and efficacy of manure nutrient extraction with surface application or incorporation for different crop species and soil types. Develop best management procedures for the 12-month management system. Determine the presence of bacterial pathogens in swine and poultry manure environments and the fate and transport of manure-borne bacterial pathogens after manure land application. Determine the potential off-site transport of pathogens via rain runoff and impacts on crop bacterial contamination. Use traditional cultural and molecular microbiological techniques in field and controlled growth chamber studies to determine the microbiology of manure, manure application, and potential future impacts of land application. Develop best management practices for manure pre-application and application phases, to minimize bacterial contamination of manure at the production level and during land application for food and forage crops.

Last Modified: 5/29/2015
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