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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS THAT DETERMINE CROP RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION, DISEASE AND PRODUCTION PRACTICES
2010 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Determine the interaction of conservation tillage, fungicide treatments, and peanut cultivars in sub-surface drip irrigation on oil amount and quality.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The effectiveness of most production practices is evaluated at harvest by examining final yield. However, an understanding of the mechanisms that drive these final yield numbers is vital in determining the efficacy of production strategies and technologies. Most causal mechanisms are physiologically based; therefore, an examination of the physiological response to the production environment can help determine how production practices succeed or fail. Research will be conducted to investigate and improve the understanding of the physiological responses to environment, climate, and production practices that ultimately determine peanut yield and quality. Major emphasis will be directed towards examining the effects of irrigation type and amount on peanut physiological water use and evaluating water-use efficiency under varying water environments. Emphasis will also be placed on plant and kernel susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination and tomato spotted wilt virus, and their effects on water use and other plant and kernel physical characteristics.

A quality natural resource base is a vital factor in the viability of rural economies to sustain agricultural productivity. Available water supply is being stretched by rapidly growing demands for water by urban populations, irrigated agriculture, industry/energy sectors, and in-stream flow requirements. The dilemma for producers and local economies is finding solutions that help reduce irrigation and natural resource consumption while at the same time maintaining and or enhancing producer net returns.


3.Progress Report
Research plots were established on farm experiment to determine the level of drought resistance in different peanut germplasms. Plants were subjected to water deficit at various times during peanut development to determine critical stages of peanut growth that will affect peanut yield and quality. Ongoing evaluations of peanut breeding lines are being conducted. For the current crop year: 800 breeding progeny lines arranging from F2 to F7 are being grown at Dawson, GA; and 560 were planted at Headland, AL. Advanced line tests have been conducted at four locations in three states (AL, GA, and MS) with 34 lines in southeastern region. Another 24 advanced lines have been tested in TX under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Fifty crosses were made in the greenhouse in 2010.

This project will term 9/30/10 and be replaced by bridging project #6604-21000-003-00D pending the merger of National Program 302 with National Program 301.


4.Accomplishments
1. Preliminary test of drought tolerance for twenty-four advanced breeding lines has been conducted in Brownfield, TX. Yield is an ultimate trait to be examined for drought tolerance characteristic in peanut production besides those physiological drought tolerant traits. Based on the yield data collected in 2009, we found that the genetic variability of drought tolerance existed among tested genotypes. The most drought tolerance genotype was ‘08T-12_23,24’, which produced the yield of 2400 lb/acre under a 2-inch rainfall condition in whole growing season, compared to check variety ‘Flavoruner’, which only produced 1100 lb/acre. Two lines ‘C431-1-1’ and ‘08T-5_31,32’ were also identified with the yield of over 2000 lb/acre. Those lines make a genetic availability of drought resistance for further breeding movement and possibly a new drought tolerance variety could be released in near future. The second year test has been conducted in 2010.

2. Peanut yield and quality can be significantly reduced due to limited availability of water, especially in critical development stages of plant development. Determining critical stages of development and understanding plant responses to drought are critical to the development of new varieties with improved drought tolerance or resistance characteristics. Five peanut genotypes with different response to drought were evaluated in the field and under rainout shelters. Plants were evaluated for physiological responses during the course of drought treatments and agronomic traits, such as yield and grade, were determined at harvest. A second year replicated study is in progress. This information about plant drought response will lead to the development of new varieties with better agronomic


Review Publications
Qu, Y., Mu, P., Zhang, H., Chen, C.Y., Gao, Y., Tian, Y., Wen, F., Li, Z. 2007. Mapping QTL of Root Morphological Traits at Different Growth Stages in Rice. Genetica. DOI 10.1007/s 10709-007-9199-5.

Zhang, B., Chen, P., Chen, C.Y., Wang, D., Shi, A., Hou, A., Ishibashi, T. 2008. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Seed Hardness in Soybean. Crop Science. Vol 48: 1341-1349.

Wang, M.L., Chen, C.Y., Davis, J., Guo, B., Stalker, T., Pittman, R.N. 2009. Assessment of Oil content and fatty acid composition variability in different peanut subspecies and botanical varieties. Plant Genetic Resources. doi: 10.1017/S1479262109990177. 8:71-73

Dang, P.M., Scully, B.T., Lamb, M.C., Guo, B. 2010. Analysis and RT-PCR identification of viral sequences in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags from different peanut tissues. Plant Pathology. 9(1):14-22.2010.

Werren, J.H., Richards, S., Desjardins, C.A., Niehuis, O., Gadau, J., Colbourne, J.K., Elsik, C.G., Murphy, T., Worley, K.C., Zdobnov, E.M., Evans, J.D., Dang, P.M., Hunter, W.B. 2010. Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid nasonia species. Science Magazine. 327:343-348.

Oliveira, D., Hunter, W.B., Ng, J., Desjardins, C., Dang, P.M., Werren, J. 2010. Data mining cDNAs reveals three new single stranded RNA viruses in Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Insect Molecular Biology. 19:99-107.

Last Modified: 12/18/2014
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