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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: TRANSMISSION, DIFFERENTIATION, AND PATHOBIOLOGY OF TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES Publications (Clicking on the reprint icon Reprint Icon will take you to the publication reprint.)

Prolonged incubation time in sheep with prion protein containing lysine at position 171 - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Greenlee, J.J., Zhang, Xia, Nicholson, E.M., Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N. 2012. Prolonged incubation time in sheep with prion protein containing lysine at position 171. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 24(3):554-558.
Experimental Interspecies Transmission Studies of the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies to Cattle: Comparison to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in Cattle - (Review Article)
Hamir, A.N., Kehrli, Jr., M.E., Kunkle, R.A., Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Richt, J.A., Miller, J.M., Cutlip, R.C. 2011. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 23(3):407-420.
PrPSc detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue by ELISA - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nicholson, E.M., Greenlee, J.J., Hamir, A.N. 2011. PrPSc detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue by ELISA. BMC Research Notes. 4(1):432.
Salivary prions in sheep and deer - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Tamguney, G., Richt, J.A., Hamir, A.N., Greenlee, J.J., Miller, M.W., Wolfe, L.L., Sirochman, T.M., Young, A.J., Glidden, D.V., Johnson, N.L., Giles, K., Dearmond, S.J., Prusiner, S.B. 2012. Salivary prions in sheep and deer. Prion. 6(1):52-61.
Pathology of neurologic disorders of raccoons (Procyon lotor) - (Review Article)
Hamir, A.N. 2011. Pathology of neurologic disorders of raccoons (Procyon lotor). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 23(5)873-884.
Enrichment of PrPSc in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissues Prior to Analysis by Western Blot - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nicholson, E.M. 2011. Enrichment of PrPSc in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues prior to analysis by Western blot. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 23(4):790-792.
Comparison of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Isolates in Raccoons - (Abstract Only)
Smith, J.D., Greenlee, J.J., Hamir, A.N. 2010. Comparison of transmissible mink encephalopathy isolates in raccoons [abstract]. American College of Veterinary Pathologists. Paper No. 145.
White-Tailed Deer Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection - (Abstract Only)
Greenlee, J.J., Smith, J.D., Kunkle, R.A. 2010. White-tailed deer susceptible to scrapie by natural route of infection [abstract]. American College of Veterinary Pathologists. Paper No. 81.
White-Tailed Deer Susceptible to Scrapie by Natural Route of Infection - (Abstract Only)
(05-Oct-10)
White-tailed Deer are Susceptible to Sheep Scrapie by Intracerebral Inoculation - (Abstract Only)
Greenlee, J.J., Smith, J.D., Kunkle, R.A. 2010. White-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation [abstract]. Prion 4(3):144.
Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue as a Starting Point for PrPSc Detection by ELISA - (Abstract Only)
Nicholson, E.M. 2010. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue as a starting point for PrPSc detection by ELISA [abstract]. Prion. 4(3):213.
Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Fallow Deer (Dama dama) by Intracerebral Route: Final Report - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J.A., Miller, J.M., Hall, M. 2011. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer by intracerebral route: final report. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 75(2):152-156.
Retinal Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Diagnosis of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Adhikary, R., Mukherjee, P., Krishnamoorthy, G., Kunkle, R.A., Casey, T.A., Rasmussen, M.A., Petrich, J.W. 2010. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of the Retina for Diagnosis of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. Analytical Chemistry. 82(10):4097-4101.
Detection of PrPSc in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissue by Western Blot Differentiates Classical Scrapie, Nor98 Scrapie, and BSE     Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Loiacono, C.M., Beckwith, N., Kunkle, R.A., Orcutt, D., Hall, S.M. 2010. Detection of PrPSc in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue by Western blot differentiates classical scrapie, Nor98 scrapie, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 22(5):684-689.
Manganese Upregulates Cellular Prion Protein and Contributes to Altered Stabilization and Proteolysis: Relevance to Role of Metals in Pathogenesis of Prion Disease - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Choi, C.J., Anantharam, V., Martin, D.P., Nicholson, E.M., Richt, J., Kanthasamy, A., Kanthasamy, A. 2010. Manganese Upregulates Cellular Prion Protein and Contributes to Altered Stabilization and Proteolysis: Relevance to Role of Metals in Pathogenesis of Prion Disease. Toxicological Sciences. 115(2):535-546.
Experimental Inoculation of Spiroplasma mirum and Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) into Raccoons (Procyon lotor) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Greenlee, J.J., Stanton, T.B., Smith, J.D., Doucette, S., Kunkle, R.A., Stasko, J.A., Richt, J.A., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2011. Experimental inoculation of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with Spiroplasma mirum and transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. 75(1):18–24.
Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Jennelle, C.S., Samuel, M.D., Nolden, C.A., Keane, D.P., Barr, D.J., Johnson, C., Vanderloo, J.P., Aiken, J.M., Hamir, A.N., Hoover, E.A. 2009. Surveillance for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in Scavengers of White-Tailed Deer Carcasses in the Chronic Wasting Disease Area of Wisconsin. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. 72(17):1018-1024.
New potentials in TSE diagnostics - (Abstract Only)
Greenlee, J.J., Smith, J.D., Greenlee, M.S. 2009. New potentials in TSE diagnostics [abstract]. International Veterinary Vaccines and Diagnostics Conference. p. 42.
Lack of Prion Accumulation in Lymphoid Tissues of Scrapie-affected Sheep with the AA136, QR171 Prion Protein Genotype - (Abstract Only)
Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N., Richt, J., Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2009. Lack of Prion Accumulation in Lymphoid Tissues of Scrapie-affected Sheep with the AA136, QR171 Prion Protein Genotype [abstract]. American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. Paper No. 186.
Susceptibility of Cattle to First-Passage Intracerebral Inoculation with Chronic Wasting Disease Agent from Elk - (Abstract Only)
Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N. Susceptibility of Cattle to First-Passage Intracerebral Inoculation with Chronic Wasting Disease Agent from Elk [abstract]. American College of Veterinary Pathologists Annual Meeting. Veterinary Pathology. 46(5):1058.
Guanidinium Chloride Unfolding of PrP**Sc Exhibits Marked Differences Between Genotypes - (Abstract Only)
Nicholson, E.M., Greenlee, J.J., Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N. 2009. Guanidinium Chloride Unfolding of PrP**Sc Exhibits Marked Differences Between Genotypes [abstract]. Prion 2009. p. 182.
Prolonged Incubation Time in Sheep with QK171 Genotype - (Abstract Only)
Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N. 2009. Prolonged Incubation Time in Sheep with QK171 Genotype [abstract]. Prion 2009. p. 120.
Characterization of a U.S. Sheep Scrapie Isolate with Short Incubation Time     Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Richt, J.A., Kunkle, R.A., Greenlee, J.J., Bulgin, M.S., Gregori, L., Rohwer, R.G. 2009. Characterization of a U.S. Sheep Scrapie Isolate with Short Incubation Time. Veterinary Pathology. 46(6):1205-1212.
Spontaneous Idiopathic Arteritis of the Testicular Artery in Raccoons (Procyon lotor)     Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Palmer, M., Li, H., Stasko, J., Rogers, D.G. 2009. Spontaneous Idiopathic Arteritis of the Testicular Artery in Raccoons (Procyon lotor). Veterinary Pathology. 46(6):1129-1132.
Origins of BSE: evidence of sporadic and heritable BSE - (Abstract Only)
Nicholson, E.M., Brunelle, B.W., Kehrli, Jr., M.E., Greenlee, J.J. 2008. Origins of BSE: Evidence of Sporadic and Heritable BSE [abstract]. United States-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources. p. 7.
Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Brunelle, B.W., Greenlee, J.J., Seabury, C.M., Brown II, C.E., Nicholson, E.M. 2008. Frequencies of Polymorphisms Associated with BSE Resistance Differ Significantly Between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Composite Cattle. BioMed Central (BMC) Veterinary Research. 4(1):36. Available: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/4/36.
Serial passage of sheep scrapie inoculum in Suffolk sheep - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J.A., Greenlee, J.J., Miller, J.M. 2009. Serial Passage of Sheep Scrapie Inoculum in Suffolk Sheep. Veterinary Pathology. 46(1):39-44.
Experimental transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (scrapie, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy) to cattle and their differentiation from bovine spongiform encephalopathy - (Abstract Only)
Hamir, A.N., Cutlip, R.C., Miler, J.M., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J.A., Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2008. Experimental Transmission of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Scrapie, Chronic Wasting Disease, Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy) to Cattle and Their Differentiation from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy [abstract]. American College of Veterinary Pathologists. Paper No. 153. p. 770.
Strain typing of U.S. scrapie strains using a panel of inbred mice - (Abstract Only)
Greenlee, J.J., Kunkle, R.A., Nicholson, E.M., Hamir, A.N., Bulgin, M.S., Richt, J. 2009. Strain Typing of U.S. Scrapie Strains Using a Panel of Inbred Mice [abstract]. American College of Veterinary Pathologists. Paper No. 121. p. 762.
Identification of a heritable polymorphism in bovine PRNP associated with genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: evidence of heritable BSE     Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Nicholson, E.M., Brunelle, B.W., Richt, J.A., Kehrli, Jr., M.E., Greenlee, J.J. 2008. Identification of a Heritable Polymorphism in Bovine PRNP Associated with Genetic Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy: Evidence of Heritable BSE. PloS ONE. 3(8):e2912.
Experimental transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (scrapie, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy) to cattle and their differentiation from bovine spongiform encephalopathy - (Abstract Only)
Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J.A., Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2008. Experimental Transmission of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Scrapie, Chronic Wasting Disease, Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy) to Cattle and their Differentiation from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy [abstract]. Prion 2008. p. 65.
Identification of a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion gene associated with genetic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy: evidence of heritable BSE - (Abstract Only)
Nicholson, E.M., Brunelle, B.W., Richt, J.A., Kehrli, Jr., M.E., Greenlee, J.J. 2008. Identification of a Heritable Polymorphism in the Bovine Prion Gene Associated with Genetic Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy: Evidence of Heritable BSE [abstract]. Prion 2008. p. 114.
Lack of prion accumulation in lymphoid tissues of scrapie-affected sheep with AA136, QR171 polymorphism type - (Abstract Only)
Kunkle, R.A., Hamir, A.N., Richt, J.A., Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2008. Lack of Prion Accumulation in Lymphoid Tissues of Scrapie-Affected Sheep with AA136, QR171 Polymorphism Type [abtract]. Prion 2008. p. 75.
Divalent metals stabilize cellular prion proteins and alter the rate of proteinase-K dependent limited proteolysis - (Abstract Only)
Kanthasamy, A.G., Choi, C., Nicholson, E.M., Anantharam, V., Richt, J.A., Kanthasamy, A. 2008. Divalent Metals Stabilize Cellular Prion Proteins and Alter the Rate of Proteinase-K Dependent Limited Proteolysis [abstract]. Prion 2008. p. 104.
Astrocytoma with involvement of medulla oblongata, spinal cord and spinal nerves in a raccoon (Procyon lotor) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Picton, R., Blythe, L.L., Heidel, J.R. 2008. Astrocytoma with Involvement of Medulla Oblongata, Spinal Cord, and Spinal Nerves in a Raccoon (Procyon lotor). Veterinary Pathology. 45(6):949-951.
A fluorescence based method, exploiting lipofuscin, for the real-time detection of central nervous system (CNS) tissues on bovine carcasses     Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Schonenbrucher, H., Adhikary, R., Mukherjee, P., Casey, T.A., Rasmussen, M.A., Maistrovich, F.D., Hamir, A.N., Kehrli, Jr., M.E., Richt, J.A., Petrich, J.W. 2008. Fluorescence-Based Method, Exploiting Lipofuscin, for Real-Time Detection of Central Nervous System Tissues on Bovine Carcasses. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56(15):6220-6226.
Western-blot detection of PrP**sc in archived paraffin-embedded brainstem from scrapie-affected sheep - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Kunkle, R.A., Nicholson, E.M., Lebepe-Mazur, S., Orcutt, D.L., Srinivas, M.L., Greenlee, J.J., Alt, D.P., Hamir, A.N. 2008. Western blot detection of PrP**sc in archived paraffin-embedded brainstem from scrapie-affected sheep. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 20(4):522-526.
Comparative studies of a real time-PCR method and three enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assays for the detection of central nervous system tissues in meat products - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Schonenbrucher, H., Gobel, K.A., Abdulmajood, A., Richt, J.A., Bulte, M. 2008. Comparative Studies of a Real-Time PCR Method and Three Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Detection of Central Nervous System Tissues in Meat Products. Journal of Food Protection. 71(10):2059-2066.
Trophoblast-like cells in tissues of porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Rupprecht, C.E. 2008. Trophoblast-like cells in tissues of porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum). Veterinary Pathology. 45:409-411.
Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route     Reprint Icon - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Richt, J., Miller, J.M., Kunkle, R.A., Hall, S., Nicholson, E.M., Orourke, K.I., Greenlee, J.J., Williams, E.S. 2008. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route. Veterinary Pathology. 45(3):297-306.
Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Nicholson, E.M., Miller, J.M., Hall, S.M., Schonenbrucher, H., Brunelle, B.W., Richt, J.A. 2008. Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 138(2-3):121-130.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Gavier-Widen, D., Noremark, M., Langeveld, J.P., Stack, M., Biacabe, A.B., Vulin, J., Chaplin, M., Richt, J.A., Jacobs, J., Acin, C., Monleon, E., Renstrom, L., Klingeborn, B., Baron, T.G. 2008. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 20(1):2-10.
Fluorescence of tissues fluororophores such as lipofuscin as a possible basis for the detection of CNS tissues on bovine carcasses - (Abstract Only)
Schonenbrucher, H., Adhikary, R., Maistrovich, F., Casey, T.A., Rasmussen, M.A., Mukherje, P., Kehrli, Jr., M.E., Petrich, J.W., Richt, J.A, 2007. Fluorescence of tissues fluororophores such as lipofuscin as a possible basis for the detection of CNS tissues on bovine carcasses [abstract]. Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases Annual Meeting. Paper No. 66P. p. 104.
Prolonged CWD incubation time and unique PrP**d profile in Prnp 132LL elk     Reprint Icon - (Abstract Only)
Greenlee, J.J., O'Rourke, K.I., Hamir, A.N., Gidlewski, T., Zhuang, D., Spraker, T. 2007. Prolonged CWD Incubation Time and Unique PrP**d Profile in Prnp 132LL Elk. In: Proceedings of the U.S. Animal Health Association 111th Annual Meeting, Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock Committee, October 20, 2007, Reno, Nevada. p. 264-265.
Allele, genotype, and haplotype data for BSE-resistance polymorphisms from healthy U.S. holstein cattle - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Brunelle, B.W., Kehrli, Jr., M.E., Stabel, J.R., Moody Spurlock, D., Hansen, L.B., Nicholson, E.M. 2007. Allele, genotype, and haplotype data for bovine spongiform encephalopathy-resistance polymorphisms from healthy US holstein cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 91:338–342.
Assessment of direct and indirect transmission of CWD from three cervid species to humans - (Abstract Only)
Zheng, M., Qing, L., Huang, S., Chen, F., Wang, M., Wang, L., Miller, M., Hamir, A.N., Richt, J.A., O'Rourke, K., Belay, E.D., Schonberger, L.B., Gambetti, P., Kong, Q. 2007. Assessment of direct and indirect transmission of CWD from three cervid species to humans [abstract]. Prion 2007. Paper No. FC5.8.
Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer (Dama dama) - (Abstract Only)
Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Nicholson, E.M., Miller, J.M., Hall, S.M., Schonenbrucher, H., Brunelle, B.W., Richt, J.A. 2007. Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer (Dama dama) [abstract]. European Society of Veterinary Pathology 25th Annual Meeting. Paper No. 49. p. 104.
Experimental transmission of U.S. scrapie agent by nasal, peritoneal and conjunctival routes to genetically susceptible sheep - (Peer Reviewed Journal)
Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J.A., Miller, J.M., Greenlee, J.J. 2008. Experimental transmission of US scrapie agent by nasal, peritoneal, and conjunctival routes to genetically susceptible sheep. Veterinary Pathology. 45(1):7-11.
Abnormal prion protein in the retina of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsoni)     Reprint Icon - (Abstract Only)
Spraker, T, Greenlee, J., Gidlewski T., O’Rourke, K. 2007. Abnormal Prion Protein in the Retina of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsoni) [abstract]. Prion 2007. Paper No. P03.70. p. 64.
Experimental transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (scrapie, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy) to cattle and their differentiation from bovine spongiform encephalopathy - (Proceedings)
Hamir, A.N., Cutlip, R.C., Miller, J.M., Kunkle, R.A., Richt, J.A., Greenlee, J.J., Nicholson, E.M., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2007. Experimental transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (scrapie, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy) to cattle and their differentiation from bovine spongiform encephalopathy. In: Proceedings of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians 13th International Symposium, November 11-14, 2007, Melbourne, Australia. p. 29.
Detection of PrP**CWD in retinal tissues in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with CWD - (Abstract Only)
Spraker, T., Gidleweski, T., Greenlee, J., Keane, D., Hamir, A., Orourke, K. 2007. Detection of PrP**CWD in retinal tissues in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with CWD [abstract]. American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians 50th Annual Meeting. p. 47.
Experimental chronic wasting disease (CWD) in fallow deer - (Abstract Only)
Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Nicholson, E.M., Miller, J.M., Hall, S.M., Schonenbrucher, H.H., Richt, J.A. 2007. Preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deet to fallow deer [abstract]. Prion 2007. Paper No. PO2.43.
Pathobiology and diagnosis of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: current knowledge, research gaps, and opportunities - (Government Publication)
Kehrli, Jr., M.E., O'Rourke, K.I., Hamir, A.N., Richt, J.A., Nicholson, E.M., Silva, C.J., Edelman, D., Gay, C.G. 2007. Pathobiology and diagnosis of animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: current knowledge, research gaps, and opportunities [government white paper]. Beltsville, MD: Interagency Working Group on Prion Science, Subcommittee on Pathobiology and Diagnostics. USDA, Agriculture Research Service. 33 p.
Bse: Description of Typical and Atypical Cases - (Proceedings)
Richt, J. 2007. BSE: description of typical and atypical cases. In: Proceedings of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2007 ACVIM Forum, June 6-9, 2007, Seattle, Washington. Paper No. 159.
Cross-species transmission of TSE - (Proceedings)
Richt, J.A., Hamir, A.N., Kunkle, R.A., Nicholson, E.M., Greenlee, J.J. 2007. Cross-species transmission of TSE. In: Proceedings of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2007 ACVIM Forum, June 6-9, 2007, Seattle, Washington. Paper No. 160.
Typical and atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy     Reprint Icon - (Abstract Only)
Richt, J. 2007. Typical and atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy [abstract]. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) Think Tank Executive Summary, Beef Industry Food Safety Council (BIFSCO), National Cattlemen's Beef Association (NCBA), November 1-2, 20006, Rohnert Park, California. Available: http://www.bifsco.org.
Last Modified: 8/21/2014
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