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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: WHAT WE EAT IN AMERICA - DIETARY SURVEY: DATA COLLECTION, INTERPRETATION, DISSEMINATION, AND METHODOLOGY

Location: Food Surveys

2009 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The mission of the Food Survey Research Group is to monitor and assess food consumption and related behavior of the U.S. population by conducting surveys and providing the resulting information for food and nutrition-related programs and public policy decisions. The following four objectives provide the structure and priorities to assure that this fundamental nutrition work is conducted with scientific integrity in a timely fashion. Objective 1. In collaboration with DHHS’ National Center for Health Statistics, collect, process, and disseminate nationwide dietary survey data according to specified timelines. Objective 2. Maintain and update supporting survey-related databases based upon scientifically sound research and utilizing new technological innovations. Objective 3. Assess dietary measurement error and update and/or revise dietary data collection methods and quality control procedures to enhance the accuracy and precision of dietary survey data. Objective 4. Analyze and interpret results from the nationwide dietary survey focusing on strategies for correct use of data, dietary nutritional adequacy of the American population and at-risk sub-groups, public health nutritional concerns, and/or policy implications.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The research approach is to maintain and enhance the components of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System to assure that the dietary collection method, the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM), and the supporting systems and databases result in the collection of dietary data that are scientifically sound, accurate, and valid. The USDA AMPM is being used to collect 10,000 dietary recalls yearly in What We Eat In America, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Food Surveys Research Group, having the lead responsibility for the dietary assessment component of NHANES, will assure that.
1)the dietary collection method collects accurate data and is valid,.
2)the data collected meet stakeholder needs and are released in a timely fashion,.
3)the systems for data collection and processing are technologically advanced and efficient,.
4)the dietary databases to support data analyses are scientifically sound and current so as to reflect the U.S. food supply at the time of data collection, and.
5)the applications developed for collection and processing are made available to the fullest extent possible. Special purpose databases to support specialized research policy needs,including the MyPyramid Equivalents Database used to assess American diets in relation to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, will be developed and maintained.


3.Progress Report
Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS, the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) has the leadership role for dietary data collection and processing of What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES. FSRG is in the eighth year of that agreement. Web release of WWEIA, NHANES 2007-2008 dietary data is on schedule for 2010, providing the fourth release of national dietary data from this interdepartmental collaboration. The new data will provide information on dietary intakes of 10,000 individuals based on 24-hour dietary recalls weighted to be representative of the population. Along with the 2007-2008 dietary intake data, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 4.0 is being prepared for release in 2010. The FNDDS is the technical database used for analyzing dietary intakes from WWEIA and by nutrition researchers in their dietary studies. It will include a 65-nutrient profile for each of more than 13,000 foods typically eaten in the U.S. The nutrient values for FNDDS 4.0 were derived from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22, maintained by the Nutrient Data Laboratory.

FSRG is conducting quality control oversight for dietary intake data collection, coding, and processing for WWEIA, NHNAES 2009. The review and update of the USDA 5-step Automated Multiple Pass Method, the method used to collect 24-hour dietary recall in WWEIA, was also completed in FY09 for implementation in the 2010 collection year. To assure that supporting survey food databases are current and reflect important changes in the U.S. food market, selected food categories are being reviewed to check for new foods, changes to current foods in the database, and for new portion sizes.

The Vitamin D Database for WWEIA, NHANES 2005-2006 was completed and released online. This database along with a report comparing usual intakes of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium to the dietary requirements established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) were developed specifically for the deliberations of the Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium.

The Food Intake as Retail Commodities Database (FIARC) for the CSFII 1994-1996 and 1998, NHANES 1999-2000, and WWEIA, NHANES 2001-2002 was completed and released online. FIARC for WWEIA, NHANES 2003-2004 is being developed. These databases, developed in collaboration with the Economic Research Service, define foods reported in national dietary surveys by 68 unique retail food commodities in order to report on food consumption by those commodities. The FIARC will be used by policymakers, economists, commodity groups, and researchers to assess food intake closer to the farm gate.

The MyPyramid Equivalents Database (MPED), 2005-2006, Version 3.0 is being developed. The MPED corresponds with specific 2-year data releases of WWEIA, NHANES to provide the analytical basis for researchers to evaluate diets based on the recommendations of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as defined in the MyPyramid food guidance.


4.Accomplishments
1. A report entitled “What We Eat in America, NHANES 2005-2006: Usual Nutrient Intakes From Food and Water Compared to 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium” was developed and released online. The report was requested by and developed for deliberations of the Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium.

2. A special database on the vitamin D values in the foods reported in national dietary surveys was developed and released online. The database is entitled “Vitamin D Addendum to the USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies 3.0.” The vitamin D values were derived from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22.

3. A database that defines foods reported in national dietary surveys by 68 unique retail food commodities was developed and released online. The database is entitled “Food Intake as Retail Commodities Database for the CSFII 1994-1996 and 1998, NHANES 1999-2000, and WWEIA, NHANES 2001-2002.”


5.Significant Activities that Support Special Target Populations
Collaboration in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study (HANDLS): The primary objective of HANDLS is to create a representative 20-year longitudinal study across the lifespan focused on investigating the differential influences of race and socioeconomic status on health. The study sample includes white and African-Americans 30-64 years of age from both low and high socioeconomic strata residing in Baltimore City, Maryland. Anticipating attrition rates over the life of the study, the initial sample is 4,000 participants. FSRG scientists have collaborated on the dietary component of HANDLS by providing scientific and technical support for the successful launch of dietary data collection that began in the fall of 2005. Numerous training sessions were conducted for HANDLS staff on the use of the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method for collection of 24-hour recalls and SurveyNet for coding and analysis of dietary intake data. Once dietary data collection was underway, FSRG scientists have provided technical oversight of the data processing steps and systems, assuring data quality and integrity.


6.Technology Transfer

Number of Web Sites Managed1
Number of Other Technology Transfer3

Review Publications
Ahuja, J.K., Lemar, L.E., Omolewa Tomobi, G., Goldman, J.D., Moshfegh, A.J. 2009. The impact of revising fats and oils data in the US Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2009.02.005.

Bowman, S.A. 2009. Socioeconomic characteristics, dietary and lifestyle patterns, and health and weight status of older adults in NHANES 1999-2002: A comparison of Caucasians and African Americans. Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly. 28(1):30-46.

Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Goldman, J.D. 2009. US adolescents and MyPyramid: Associations between fast-food consumption and lower likelihood of meeting recommendations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 109(2):226-235.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014
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