Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: WHAT WE EAT IN AMERICA - DIETARY SURVEY: DATA COLLECTION, INTERPRETATION, DISSEMINATION, AND METHODOLOGY

Location: Food Surveys

2013 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416):
The mission of the Food Survey Research Group is to monitor and assess food consumption and related behavior of the U.S. population by conducting surveys and providing the resulting information for food and nutrition-related programs and public policy decisions. The following four objectives provide the structure and priorities to assure that this fundamental nutrition work is conducted with scientific integrity in a timely fashion. Objective 1. In collaboration with DHHS’ National Center for Health Statistics, collect, process, and disseminate nationwide dietary survey data according to specified timelines. Objective 2. Maintain and update supporting survey-related databases based upon scientifically sound research and utilizing new technological innovations. Objective 3. Assess dietary measurement error and update and/or revise dietary data collection methods and quality control procedures to enhance the accuracy and precision of dietary survey data. Objective 4. Analyze and interpret results from the nationwide dietary survey focusing on strategies for correct use of data, dietary nutritional adequacy of the American population and at-risk sub-groups, public health nutritional concerns, and/or policy implications.

Temporary Objectives:

Objective 1: Ensure that current functionality of the data output from Food Surveys Research Group is not compromised, including continuation of the second day of dietary surveillance and timely release of FNDDS and other databases.

Objective 2: Conduct an independent and outside evaluation of the IT capabilities of the Food Surveys Research Group and the associated use of the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference with respect to the ability to acquire, maintain and release data in a timely fashion and in multiple formats needed by the customers.

Objective 3: Implement changes to update and modernize the IT infrastructure underlying the Food Surveys Research Group.


1b.Approach (from AD-416):
The research approach is to maintain and enhance the components of the USDA Dietary Intake Data System to assure that the dietary collection method, the USDA Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM), and the supporting systems and databases result in the collection of dietary data that are scientifically sound, accurate, and valid. The USDA AMPM is being used to collect 10,000 dietary recalls yearly in What We Eat In America, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The Food Surveys Research Group, having the lead responsibility for the dietary assessment component of NHANES, will assure that.
1)the dietary collection method collects accurate data and is valid,.
2)the data collected meet stakeholder needs and are released in a timely fashion,.
3)the systems for data collection and processing are technologically advanced and efficient,.
4)the dietary databases to support data analyses are scientifically sound and current so as to reflect the U.S. food supply at the time of data collection, and.
5)the applications developed for collection and processing are made available to the fullest extent possible. Special purpose databases to support specialized research policy needs,including the MyPyramid Equivalents Database used to assess American diets in relation to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, will be developed and maintained.

Temporary Approaches:

Approach 1. Continue to review data sets for their completeness and accuracy. Continue to work with NCHS to monitor collection of dietary information, including electronic monitoring for second day collection.

Approach 2: Identify knowledgeable individuals with expertise in information technologies to serve as consultants about future needs for evaluating essential and non-essential food components in the foods eaten by Americans.

Approach 3. Change hardware and software as appropriate to ensure access to high quality information about the eating behaviors of Americans.


3.Progress Report:
Through an ongoing collaboration with the National Center for Health Statistics, DHHS, the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG) has the lead role for dietary data collection and processing of What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES. Web release of WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012 is on schedule for 2014, providing information on dietary intakes of 10,000 individuals. The corresponding Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) 6.0, used to analyze dietary intakes, will also be released in 2014. The FNDDS, used to analyze dietary intakes from WWEIA and by nutrition researchers in their dietary studies, will include a 65-nutrient profile for more than 13,000 foods and beverages. FSRG conducted quality control oversight for dietary data collection, coding, and processing for WWEIA 2013. The review and update of the USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method, used to collect 24-hour dietary recalls in WWEIA, was also completed for implementation in 2013. To ensure that supporting survey food databases are current and reflect changes in the U.S. food market, selected food and beverage categories were reviewed and updated. Analysis of the 2009-10 WWEIA data was completed to construct dietary data briefs on the following topics: dietary intake of calcium and fiber, consumption of pizza in the United States, and lunch and dinner in America. They have been peer reviewed and are being finalized for release online. -The Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases (FICRCD) for WWEIA, NHANES 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 were completed and released online. Each release includes a database, documentation, and summary tables on the mean intakes of the 65 retail-level commodities by 23 age-gender groups. -The Food Patterns Equivalents Databases (FPED) 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 were completed and released online. The FPED corresponds with specific 2-year data releases of WWEIA, NHANES to provide the analytical basis for researchers to evaluate diets based on the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Each release has several products including a number of databases and summary table sets on the mean intakes of the 37 Food Patterns components by 23 age-gender and socioeconomic subgroups. Development of FPED 2011-2012 for the WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012 data is underway and planned for release in 2014. -The WWEIA Food Categories, a classification scheme of 150 unique categories, was developed and released online to provide an application to analyze foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. A new version of the Categories will be produced for each 2-year release of WWEIA, NHANES. -FSRG, in collaboration with NDL, identified and released online 125 Sentinel Foods and corresponding database to be monitored as primary indicators for assessing the potential change in the sodium content of foods in the national dietary surveillance program. The Sentinel Foods protocol and the comprehensive review and update completed by FSRG every two years of the nutrient content of all foods and beverages reported in WWEIA, NHANES respond to the Institute of Medicine’s report Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States.


4.Accomplishments
1. Release of national estimates of daily intakes of retail food commodities. Through collaboration with the Economic Research Service, foods reported in national dietary surveys have been disaggregated into 65 unique retail food commodities in order to report on amounts consumed daily of those commodities. Three sets of tables have been released on the Web that summarize food intakes across the 65 commodities for 23 age-gender and socioeconomic groups for national dietary surveys conducted in 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008. These estimates provide unique data to assess food and beverage intakes of Americans closer to the farm gate. The Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Database (FICRCD) that converts foods reported in the surveys from 2003-2008 as well as the Methodology and User Guide for FICRCD were also released on the Web; all are accessible along with the data tables from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.

2. Release of national estimates of daily intakes of Food Pattern components. Foods and beverages reported in national dietary surveys have been disaggregated into 37 Food Pattern components in order to report on amounts consumed of those components. Four sets of tables have been released on the Web that summarize food and beverage intakes across the 37 Food Pattern components for 23 age-gender and socioeconomic groups for national dietary surveys conducted in 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. These estimates provide unique data to evaluate food and beverage intakes of Americans compared to recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The Food Patterns Equivalents Database (FPED) that converts foods reported in the surveys from 2007-2010 as well as the Methodology and User Guide for FPED were also released on the Web; all are accessible along with the data tables from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.

3. Release of a dietary data brief. WWEIA, NHANES dietary intake data have been analyzed and results have been released on the Web in a dietary data brief. Data briefs are short reports focusing on a single topic summarizing key results from What We Eat in America. The topic for the brief is potassium intake of the U.S. population. The availability of these data briefs is beneficial in providing dietary survey results to food and nutrition program policy and decision makers in Federal, state, and local government, researchers at academic institutions, nutrition scientists and educators, and food and agricultural specialists in industry. The data briefs are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.

4. Release of the WWEIA Food Categories. Each of the nearly 8,000 foods and beverages in the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies has been linked to one of 150 WWEIA Food Categories. The WWEIA Food Categories provide an application for analyzing foods and beverages as consumed in the American diet. WWEIA Food Categories for 2007-2008 and for 2009-2010 dietary data for WWEIA, NHANES were released on the Web and are accessible from www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.


Review Publications
Rhodes, D.G., Murayi, T., Clemens, J.C., Baer, D.J., Sebastian, R.S., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method accurately assesses sodium intakes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 97:958-964.

Sebastian, R.S., Enns, C.W., Steinfeldt, L.C., Goldman, J.D., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Monitoring sodium intake of the U.S. population: Impact and implications of a change in What We Eat in America, NHANES dietary data processing. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 113(7):942-949.

Maalouf, J., Cogswell, M.E., Gunn, J., Curtis, C.J., Rhodes, D.G., Hoy, M.K., Pehrsson, P.R., Nickle, M.S., Merritt, R. 2013. Monitoring the sodium content of restaurant foods: Public health challenges and opportunities. American Journal of Public Health. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2013.301442.

Ahuja, J.K., Moshfegh, A.J., Holden, J., Harris, E.W. 2013. USDA food and nutrient databases provide the infrastructure for food and nutrition research, policy and practice. Journal of Nutrition. 143:241S-249S.

Andrew, C.J., Gonzalo, R., Janel, O., Juan, M., Moshfegh, A.J., Baer, D.J., Novotny Dura, J. 2013. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CETP, SLC46A1, SLC19A1, CD36, BCOM1, APOA5, and ABCA1 are significant predictors of plasma HDL in healthy adults. Lipids in Health and Disease. 12:66-75.

Hoy, M.K., Goldman, J.D. 2012. Potassium intake of the U.S. population, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=19476.

Rhodes, D.G., Clemens, J.C., Hoy, M.K., Adler, M.E., Goldman, J.D., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. What We Eat in America Food Categories. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm? docid=23429.

Bowman, S.A., Martin, C.L., Carlson, J.L., Clemens, J.C., Lin, B-W., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Databases 2003-08: Methodology and User Guide. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=21994.

Bowman, S.A., Martin, C.L., Carlson, J.L., Clemens, J.C., Lin, B-W., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2003-04. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.html?docid=21992.

Bowman, S.A., Martin, C.L., Carlson, J.L., Clemens, J.C., Lin, B-W., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2005-06. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.arsd.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=21992.

Bowman, S.A., Martin, C.L., Clemens, J.C., Carlson, J., Lin, B-W., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2007-08. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=21992.

Montville, J.B., Ahuja, J.K.C., Martin, C.L., Heendeniya, K.Y., Omolewa Tomobi, G., Steinfeldt, L.C., Anand, J., Adler, M.E., Lacomb, R.P., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS), 5.0. Procedia Food Science. 2:99-112. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211601X13000175.

Steinfeldt, L.C., Anand, J., Murayi, T. 2013. Food reporting patterns in the USDA Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Procedia Food Science. 2:145-156. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211601X13000230.

Ahuja, J.K., Juan, W., Egan, S., Buzby, J., Trumbo, P., Moshfegh, A.J., Holden, J. 2013. Federal monitoring activities related to food: How do they compare?. Procedia Food Science. 2:165-171.

Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Thoerig, R.C., Shimizu, M., Barrows, B.R., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2007-08: Methodology and User Guide. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23594.

Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Friday, J.E., Thoerig, R.C., Shimizu, M., Barrows, B.R., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes from Food: Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2007-2008, Tables 1-4. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23595.

Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Thoerig, R.C., Friday, J.E., Shimizu, M., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-10: Methodology and User Guide. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23594.

Bowman, S.A., Clemens, J.C., Thoerig, R.C., Friday, J.E., Moshfegh, A.J. 2013. Food Patterns Equivalent Intakes from Food: Consumed per Individual, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010, Tables 1-4. Worldwide Web Site: Food Surveys Research Group. Available: www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23595.

Last Modified: 12/22/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page