Absorption and Metabolism of Essential Mineral Nutrients in Children
Children's Nutrition Research Center
Project Number: 6250-51000-051-00
Start Date: Apr 01, 2009
End Date: Mar 31, 2014
The overall goal of our research is to develop nutritionally enhanced plant foods that provide increased nutrient bioavailability and absorption in children. Ultimately, this plant food research in combination with mineral nutrition research in children will allow researchers to provide guidance regarding food intake and fortification, specifically related to iron, zinc, Vitamin C and calcium. Specific objectives of this research include: 1) use genetic, molecular, and physiological approaches to define the role of specific genes and gene products in the acquisition and whole-organism partitioning of minerals (iron, zinc, Vitamin C, calcium, and magnesium) and other factors that inhibit or promote absorption of these minerals in plant foods; 2) Conduct animal and human feeding studies to determine mineral bioavailability of the nutritionally enhanced crops; 3) develop new, cost-effective methods for the intrinsic labeling of plant foods for use in nutrient bioavailability studies; 4) determine the absorption of dietary calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc in children and the influence of other nutrients and dietary factors on the absorption; 5) (deleted due to resignation of investigator); 6) determine the effect of dietary components on the upregulation of intestinal iron transporter genes in human models; 7) characterize dynamic indices of bone formation by quantitative histomorphometry and micro computed tomography in 7 mouse models; 8) quantitate specific gene expression in calvarial osteoblasts derived from mouse models; and 9) determine the effects of hormone ablation, iron loading, ASC feeding and plant derived antioxidants on bone parameters in vivo. These efforts will expand our capabilities for assessing the absorption and metabolism of various plant-derived minerals and phytochemicals and will provide novel information directly useful to government, industry and the consumer related to dietary requirements. The generation of new bioavailability data for various plant-derived nutrients will be established and such data will have global application and provide a strong basis for evidence-based nutritional recommendations to be developed.
These research studies will utilize diverse plant species, human cell culture systems, or human subjects. CNRC scientists will focus on characterizing plant genes and gene products that are involved with mineral transport in the plant, with a focus on iron, zinc, calcium, and magnesium. We will use specifically manipulated transgenic lines, various plant mutants, or unique plant genotypes to assess the impact of altered genes on mineral transport and storage throughout various plant tissues. In order to facilitate studies of bioavailability of plant-based nutrients, we will develop new, cost-effective methods for the intrinsic, stable-isotopic labeling of plant foods, by testing different hydroponic strategies and altered timings of isotope application to the plants. Food-based factors associated with the dietary delivery of the essential minerals calcium, iron, and zinc will be investigated using human in vitro cell culture and human subject-based experiments. We will conduct a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation to assess the effects of vitamin D status on calcium absorption in small children. We will evaluate different types of whole diets (lacto-ovo vegetarian) on iron status and the effects of differing intakes of zinc on zinc and copper absorption. We will determine if benefits previously seen for prebiotic fibers in enhancing calcium absorption also occur for iron absorption. Low abundance stable isotopes of each element will be used to track absorption in each of these human studies. In vitro cell culture models will seek to identify the genetic basis for iron and zinc absorption in intestinal cells, by monitoring mineral absorption in combination with the differential expression of various metal transporter genes. We will explore the roles of aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase in modulating oxidative stress in cells, as well as their separate role in providing the starting substrates for the ascorbate synthesis pathway. Ultimately we will have a better understanding of the role of vitamin C in our diet.