2010 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
Objective 1. Identify barriers and facilitators to adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DG) and examine how differential profiles of adherence relate to obesity in children and adults of the Delta region. This research is part of the ARS multi-location study entitled "Healthy Eating and Lifestyle for Total Health" (HEALTH) and will be conducted concurrently with the other ARS partners. HEALTH study locations include the Delta region plus the six ARS Human Nutrition Research Centers located in Arkansas, California, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Dakota, and Texas.
Subobjective 1A. Construct conceptually and culturally appropriate survey tools to assess DG adherence barriers and facilitators for African-American and Caucasian children and their caregivers of the Lower Mississippi Delta region. Conduct a pilot test to determine the psychometric properties of the survey tools.
Subobjective 1B. Examine barriers and facilitators of DG adherence and other factors as they relate to dietary behavior and body mass index by administering the surveys to cross-sections of the Lower Mississippi Delta region's population.
Objective 2. Extend the behavioral knowledge gained from the HEALTH study, as well as from Foods of our Delta (FOODS 2000) and other food availability and food cost surveys in the Delta, to adapt existing DG eating patterns, such as the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan, for the Lower Mississippi Delta population. Test the developed eating patterns for nutritional adequacy and feasibility of adoption by the Delta population. Concurrently, adapt DG physical activity recommendations for the Delta population and examine feasibility of adoption. Evaluations are to use only established scientific methods meeting the requirements for evidence-based reviews.
Sub-objective 2A. Develop an incremental approach to promote specific steps toward DG adherence with new tools and technology adapted for the LMD.
Sub-objective 2B. Determine the feasibility of the Delta DG Small Steps Tool Kit as a means of adapting the DG to overcome barriers and support motivators for DG adherence in the LMD.
Objective 3. Evaluate the effectiveness of the adapted DG eating patterns, with and without physical activity, in reducing weight gain and risk factors for obesity-related chronic disease in the Lower Mississippi Delta population through the use of interventional studies. Determine if diet-gene relationships underlie the effectiveness of the adapted eating patterns. Only established scientific evaluation methods meeting the requirements for evidence-based reviews, such as a randomized control trial design with adequate statistical power, are to be used.
Sub-objective 3A. Examine the effectiveness of a Delta DG Small Steps Tool Kit to create incremental changes in eating behaviors to support and reinforce adoption of the DG as means of preventing further obesity among LMD residents.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Barriers and facilitators of adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DG) will be identified through random nominal group sessions with 5th graders and caretakers in the Delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Researchers will examine how differential profiles of adherence relate to obesity in children and adults of the Delta region. This research is part of the ARS multi-location study entitled "Healthy Eating and Lifestyle for Total Health" (HEALTH) and will be conducted concurrently with the other ARS partners. HEALTH study locations include the Delta region plus the six ARS Human Nutrition Research Centers located in Arkansas, California, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Dakota, and Texas. Conceptually and culturally appropriate survey tools will be constructed to assess DG adherence barriers and facilitators for African-American and Caucasian children and their caregivers of the Lower Mississippi Delta region. A pilot test will be conducted to determine the psychometric properties of the survey tools. Barriers and facilitators of DG adherence and other factors as they relate to dietary behavior and body mass index will be examined by administering the surveys to cross-sections of the Lower Mississippi Delta region's population.
Utilizing social marketing principles, the research will develop a small steps approach and set of tools termed the Delta DG Small Steps Tool Kit (Delta DGSS Tool Kit) addressing only diet-specific guidelines. Research will examine data previously collected in the LMD to identify gaps in knowledge, skills, and behaviors that interfere with adhering to the DG. From these findings, a priority list of tools, techniques, and technology will be planned through an iterative process with a community advisory committee working with ARS scientists/nutritionists and Delta Obesity Prevention Research Unit (Delta OPRU) collaborators from cooperating institutions. The resulting Delta DGSS Tool Kit (e.g., menus, shopping lists, food selection tips, food preparation) will be tested for feasibility with a small group of family caregivers. A community food environment survey will be conducted to assure local availability of foods and cultural acceptability. The Delta DGSS Tool Kit will be used in an intervention to examine its effectiveness to promote DG adherence in a target group of primary food gatekeeper/caregivers and their families. The effectiveness evaluation of the small steps approach will combine anthropometric, nutritional and dietary assessment in the intervention with biological assessment for biomarkers associated with fruit/vegetable intakes and for other serum markers for chronic disease risks related to obesity, e.g., hypertension, hyperglycemia. This larger study will examine how effective the Delta DGSS Tool Kit is in promoting DG adherence and preventing obesity over time in a target group of young adult mothers who act as the primary gatekeeper for food in their children.
During FY10, the Delta OPRU continued to serve as an "umbrella" for administering the subordinate research projects certified through peer review and conducted by various cooperators.
The Delta OPRU initiated a quarterly peer review oversight process of all of the research projects. This involves peers from the collaborating institutions meeting to monitor the progress of the research, provide technical assistance, and submit written reports to Delta OPRU Executive Director.
In August an Annual Research Workshop provided opportunities for collaborating scientists to share their progress toward research milestones, identify problems and accomplishments, discuss additional research or needed changes, develop new collaborations, plan for data analysis coordination across sites, and develop plans for publication and dissemination of results.
The ARS research project, Delta Dietary Guidelines Small Steps: Small Steps to a Healthier Delta is nearing completion of the DGSS Tool Kit, and participant recruitment for the feasibility study is underway.
Additionally, the Delta OPRU completed data collection for the USDA Healthy Eating and Lifestyle for Total Health (4 child/4 adults) group sessions with 58 participants and for an ancillary study of rural European Americans and African Americans (33 child/31 adult) group sessions with 392 participants. This study will provide data on a rural, at-risk population in the Delta to determine if differences in barriers and facilitators to Dietary Guidelines adherence exist between rural and urban samples collected by other HEALTH investigators.
For the past three years, Delta OPRU has been conducting obesity prevention research with children ages 6 to 14 participating in an Arkansas summer day camp. This was continued during FY10 with the addition of genetic data being collected as part of the Delta Obesity Prevention and Vitamin study, an ongoing collaboration with the FDA, National Center for Toxicological Research. Approximately 200 children and adults have participated. Manuscripts are in development related to improvements in Healthy Eating Index scores of participant children over the 4-year period and relating the food and nutrient changes to blood vitamin levels.
Delta obesity prevention and vitamin study. Previous Delta Obesity Prevention Research Unit research has shown that families in the Delta do not meet the recommendations of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines as measured by Healthy Eating Index Scores (HEI), and are therefore at risk for being overweight or obese. A Delta Obesity Prevention Research Unit research study that combines improved food intake and physical activity, and nutrition education was implemented this year at the summer day camp site of the Boys, Girls, and Adults Community Development Center (Phillips Co, Arkansas). Preliminary analyses of data suggests that in comparison to the adults who are maintaining their typical diets, HEI scores were improved in children participating in the summer day camp and are receiving healthier food items. The impact of this study is that if healthful foods are served, the rural at-risk children will eat them and improved HEI scores should be expected.
Monitoring and review of Delta OPRU research. Conducting multi-state research activities are often more difficult to manage and account for than centralized research studies occurring at one site due to being geographically disbursed. The Delta Obesity Prevention Research Unit is responsible for a multi-site long-term research consortium of six universities and ARS scientists located in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Common research objectives are designed for collaboration and individual research projects. This year the Delta OPRU developed a system of "working meetings" prior to development of projects, certification of projects, and monitoring of progress by site visits, Coordinating Committees to continue peer review, and an annual research workshop where scientists and administrators come together to discuss progress and address accountability for resources. This system has the potential to serve as a model for other multi-site, multi-state federal research projects to ensure accountability to the objectives and to the financial resources distributed for the research which could result in improved science and greater collaboration in technology.
Pawlak, R., Brown, D., Meyer, M.K., Connell, C., Yadrick, K., Johnson, J.T., Blackwell, A. 2008. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females. Journal of Primary Prevention. 29(1):57-71.
Stewart, M., Colley, D., Huff, A., Felix, H., Shelby, B., Strickland, E., McCabe Sellers, B.J., Redmond, P., Evans, M., Baker, B., Stephens, G., Nuss, H.J. 2009. Participatory development and implementation of a community research workshop: Experiences from a community based participatory research (CBPR) partenership. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education and Action. 3(2):165-178.
Kennedy, B.M., Lain, J.D., Baker, B.L., Prewitt, T.E., Warren, D., Sims, D., Threadgill, P., Yadrick, K., Champagne, C., Mcgee, B.B., Strickland, E., McCabe Sellers, B.J., Bogle, M.L. 2009. Emerging leadership from communities in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Journal of Rural Community Psychology. E12(1).
McCabe Sellers, B.J., Strickland, E., Lovera, D., Yadrick, K., Bogle, M.L. 2009. Strategies for promoting healthy weight and healthy lives for children in the Delta. Race, Gender and Class. 16(#3-4):133-140.
Zoellner, J., Powers, A., Williams, A., Ndirangu, M., Strickland, E., Rowser, M., Lucas, G.D., Connell, C., Yadrick, K., Bogle, M.L. 2010. Does a 6-month pedometer intervention improve physical activity and health among vulnerable African Americans, a feasibility study. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 7:224-231.
Downey, L.H., Cuy Castellanos, D., Yadrick, K., Avis-Williams, A., Graham-Kresge, S., Bogle, M.L. 2011. Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the delta nutrition intervention research initiative:an academic perspective. Journal of Health Promotion Practice. 12 (5): 744-752.
Kim Yeary, K.H., Jo, C., Simpson, P., Gossett, J., Johnson, G.S., McCabe Sellers, B.J., Thornton, A., Prewitt, E., McGee, B.B. 2009. Religion and body weight in an underserved population. Race, Gender and Class. 16(3-4):82-98.
Johnson, G.S., McGee, B.B., Richardson, V., Johnson, C. 2009. Measuring aspects of fruit and vegetable availability in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Race, Gender and Class. 16(3-4):109-119.
Zoellner, J., Bounds, W., Connell, C., Yadrick, K., Crook, L. 2010. Meaningful messages: Adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta provide cultural insight into strategies for promoting the MyPyramid. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior. 42(1):41-50.
Downey, L.H., Cuy Castellanos, D., Yadrick, K., Threadgill, P., Kennedy, B., Strickland, E., Prewitt, T.E., Bogle, M.L. 2010. Capacity building for health through community based participatory nutrition intervention research in rural communities. Family and Community Health. 33(3):175-185.
Thomson, J.L., Mccabe Sellers, B.J., Strickland, E., Lovera, D., Nuss, H.J., Bogle, M.L., Yadrick, K., Duke, S.E. 2010. Development and evaluation of WillTry. An instrument for measuring childrens' willingness to try fruits and vegetables. Appetite. 54:465-472.
Stewart, M., Colley, D., Felix, H., Huff, A., Shelby, B., Strickland, E., McCabe Sellers, B.J., Redmond, P., Evans, M., Baker, B., Stephens, G., Nuss, H. 2009. Evaluation of a workshop to improve community involvement in community-based participatory research efforts. Education For Health. 22(3):Article 318. Available: http://www.educationforhealth.net/articles/defaultnew.asp?IssueNo=22x.
McGee, B.B., Johnson, G.S., Bardell, K., Richardson, V., Thornton, A., Johnson, C., Williams, J.E., Bogle, M.L. 2009. Attitudes and beliefs affect frequency of eating out in the Lower Mississippi Delta. Race, Gender and Class. 16(3-4):19-30.