2013 Annual Report
LAB: OBESITY & METABOLISM 1. Define the role and mechanisms of adipocyte death in obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders using genetic and nutritional models of adipocyte growth and death. 2. Determine the role of the macrophage in modulating adipocyte death and associated adipose tissue inflammation using genetically altered animal models. 3. Determine the mechanisms by which alterations in Lipid Droplet (LD) proteins modulate lipolysis and risk of developing metabolic disorders. 4. To determine the role of acyl CoA-synthetase 5 in systemic metabolism.
LAB: BODY COMPOSITION 1. Develop and validate mathematical models for carbon kinetics that simulate energy intake, energy regulation, and their relationship to body composition and fat stores. 2. Develop and validate practical field tools for the assessment and management of sarcopenia, dehydration, zinc status and frailty in institutionalized and community living elderly.
LAB: OBESITY AND METABOLISM The role of adipocyte death in obesity will be investigated using a combination of transgenic and knockout mouse models and bone-marrow transplantation in mice fed different diets to understand the influence of obesity. In vivo and in vitro studies will investigate glucose and insulin homeostasis complemented by histological, immunohistological, electron microscopic, gene expression, FACS analysis, adipocyte lipolysis and Akt signaling studies. For studies investigating lipid droplet proteins, we will use both adenovirus expression vectors and possibly transgenic animals to determine how alterations in expression and intracellular signaling regulate protein expression, metabolic pathways, and lipolysis in cultured cells and animals. Depending upon which tissue is studied, we will examine lipolysis and protein expression, alterations in cytokine, lipid accumulation, signal transduction pathways, and oxidative gene expression.
LAB: BODY COMPOSITION Simple monitoring of isotope clearance in breath CO2 can provide quantitative information on average energy intake. Our approach includes the use of a single stable isotope administration (C-13 palmitic acid) and monitoring its disappearance in breath CO2. We will use both mathematical modeling and clinical validation of this approach. The development and validation of new portable body composition tools will include the comparison of a hand-held caliper X-ray absorptiometer against tissue analysis by computerized tomography and the full evaluation of a non-destructive method for rapid analysis of extracellular water by X ray fluorescence analysis for stable bromine. For free-living elderly, we expect that portable body composition tools will provide an additional way to help monitor their medical, functional, and nutritional status so that they can extend safely their independent living.
Carpenter, A., Hochstadt, J., Huddleston, J.Y., Kustanovich, V., Reynolds, A.A., Roberts, S.B., Sen, S. 2012. Nutrition, weight gain, and eating behavior in pregnancy: a review of experimental evidence for long-term effects on the risk of obesity in offspring. Physiology and Behavior. 107(1):138-145.
Elder, S.J., Neale, M.C., Fuss, P.J., Lichtenstein, A.H., Greenberg, A.S., Mccrory, M.A., Bouchard, T.J., Saltzman, E., Susan, R.B. 2012. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together. Open Nutrition Journal. 6: 59-70.
Ueno, M., Shen, W., Patel, S., Greenberg, A.S., Azhar, S., Kraemer, F.B. 2013. Fat-specific protein 27 modulates nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 and the cellular response to stress. Journal of Lipid Research. 54(3):734-743.
Grahn, T., Zhang, Y., Lee, M., Sommer, A.G., Mostoslavsky, G., Fried, S.K., Greenberg, A.S., Puri, V. 2013. FSP27 and PLIN1 interaction promotes the formation of large lipid droplets in human adipocytes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 432(2):296-301.
Vieira-Potter, V.J., Strissel, K.J., Xie, C., Chang, E., Bennett, G., Defuria, J., Obin, M.S., Greenberg, A.S. 2012. Adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized mice occurs in the absence of increased adiposity. Endocrinology. 153(9):4266-4277.
Shen, J., Obin, M.S., Zhao, L. 2013. The gut microbiota, obesity and insulin resistance. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 34(1):39-58.
Ribeiro, S.M., Kehayias, J., Silva, R., Tirapegui, J. 2012. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis. Revista Acta Fisiátrica. 18(4):206-210.
Prelack, K., Dwyer, J., Zeigler, P., Kehayias, J. 2012. Bone Mineral Density in Elite Adolescent female figure skaters. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2012 (JISSN). DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-9-57.
Bosy-Westphal, A., Schautz, B., Later, W., Kehayias, J.J., Gallagher, D., Muller, M.J. 2013. What makes a BIA equation unique? Validity of 8-electrode multifrequency-BIA to estimate body compostion in a healthy adult population. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 67(S1):S14-S21.
Vernier, S., Chiu, A., Schober, J., Weber, T., Nguyen, P., Luer, M., Mcpherson, T., Wanda, P.E., Marshall, C.A., Rohatgi, N., Mcdaniel, M., Greenberg, A., Kwon, G. 2012. Beta-cell metabolic alterations under chronic nutrient overload in rat and human islets. Islets. 4(6):379-392.
Karl, J.P., Saltzman, E. 2013. The role of whole grains in body weight regulation. Advances in Nutrition. 3(5):697-707.
Mccrory, M., Burke, A., Roberts, S. 2012. Dietary(sensory)variety and energy balance. Physiology and Behavior. 107(4):576-583.
Salinardi, T.C., Batra, P., Roberts, S.B., Urban, L.E., Robinson, L.M., Pittas, A.G., Lichtenstein, A.H., Deckersbach, T., Saltzman, E., Das, S. 2013. A lifestyle intervention reduces body weight and improves cardiometabolic risk factors in worksites. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.112.046995.
Batra, P., Das, S., Salinardi, T.C., Robinson, L.M., Dallal, G.E., Saltzman, E., Scott, T., Pittas, A.G., Roberts, S.B. 2013. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention. Appetite. 69:1-7.
Stewart, T.M., Bhapkar, M., Das, S., Galan, K., Martin, C.K., Mcadams, L., Pieper, C., Redman, L.M., Roberts, S.B., Stein, R.I. 2013. Comprehensive assessment of long-term effects of reducing intake of energy phase 2 (CALERIE Phase 2) screening and recruitment: Methods and results. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 34(1):10-20.
Denis, G.V., Obin, M.S. 2013. Metabolically healthy obesity: origins and implications. Molecular Aspects of Medicine . 34(1):59-70.
Urban, L.E., Lichtenstein, A.H., Gary, C.E., Fierstein, J.L., Equi, A., Kussmaul, C., Dallal, G.E., Roberts, S.B. 2013. The energy content of restaurant foods without stated calorie information. Archives of Internal Medicine. 173(14):1292-1299.
Batra, P., Das, S., Salinardi, T.C., Robinson, L.M., Dallal, G.E., Saltzman, E., Scott, T., Pittas, A.G., Roberts, S.B. 2013. Eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss in a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention. Obesity. DOI: 10.1002/oby.20404.
Mcmanaman, J.L., Bales, E.S., Orlicky, D.J., Jackman, M., Maclean, P.S., Cain, S., Crunk, A.E., Mansur, A., Graham, C.E., Bowman, T.A., Greenberg, A.S. 2013. Perilipin-2 null mice are protected against diet-induced obesity, adipose inflammation, and fatty liver disease. Journal of Lipid Research. 54(5):1346-1359.
Grove, K.L., Fried, S.K., Greenberg, A.S., Xiao, X.Q., Clegg, D.J. 2010. A mirccroarray analysis of sexual dimorphism of adipose tissues in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. International Journal of Obesity. 34(6):989-1000.