2010 Annual Report
Objective 2. Determine tissue bioavailability and chemopreventive properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts of blueberries, cranberries, and grapes in a mouse model.
Objective 3. Investigate the effect of age on quercetin bioavailability and metabolism due to changes in phase II enzyme activity.
Objective 4. Test whether exposure of rat dams to a “Western” diet during pregnancy and lactation will increase obese phenotypes in their pups and whether dietary flavonoids, particularly isoflavones, will decrease the obese phenotype.
Objective 1: Determine the ability of bioactive plant-based foods, including carotenoid-rich foods to exert biological functions and affect genomic stability. Objective 2: Determine the vitamin A requirement of healthy U.S. adults.
LAB: CAROTENOIDS By recruiting older adults (>60 yr, men and post-menopausal women) without and with metabolic syndrome to ingest bioactive plant foods or histidine dipeptide rich foods, we will measure plasma total antioxidant performance, plasma in vivo oxidative stress biomarkers, plasma water-soluble and fat-soluble antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid), plasma biomedical parameters to determine the ability of bioactive plant-based foods, including carotenoid-rich foods, to exert biological functions and affect genomic stability. Also, to explore a possible correlation between a change in serum apoE and a change in Macular Pigment (MP) density, we will measure HDL subpopulations by non-denaturing 2d gel electrophoresis, immuno-blotting, and image analysis. We will measure lipoproteins, antioxidative capacity, and markers of inflammation in order to better define the mechanism by which decreased body weight is associated with increased MP in humans. Using the stable isotope labeled vitamin A (labeled in three different levels, ^13 C_4 , ^13 C_8 , ^13 C_12 – retinyl acetate) and aphereses-autologues technique on human volunteers, we will measure the enrichment of these labeled retinols in human circulations and mathematical modeling to determine vitamin A bioavailability and the requirement of vitamin A through an intervention trial with various levels of vitamin A.
Botero, D., Ebbeling, C.B., Blumberg, J.B., Ribaya-Mercado, J.D., Creager, M.A., Swain, J.F., Feldman, H.A., Ludwig, D.S. 2009. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study. Obesity. 17(9):1664-1670.
Mckay, D.L. 2009. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure. Agro-Food Industry Hi-Tech. 20(6):40-42.
Mckay, D.L., Chen, C.E., Saltzman, E., Blumberg, J. 2009. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. Journal of Nutrition. 140:298-303.
Bolling, B.W., Dolnikowski, G., Blumberg, J.B., Chen, C.E. 2010. Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of California almonds depend on cultivar and harvest year. Food Chemistry. 122:819-825.
Bolling, B.W., Mckay, D.L., Blumberg, J.B. 2010. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant actions of tree nuts. Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 19(1):117-123.
Hollis, J.H., Houchins, J.B., Blumberg, J., Mattes, R.D. 2010. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 28(5):574-582.
Chung, S., Chen, C., Blumberg, J.B. 2009. Flavanoid-rich fraction from Sageretia theezans leaves scavenges reactive oxygen radical species and increases the resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation. Journal of Medicinal Food. 12(6):1310-1315.
Mckay, D.L., Chen, C.E., Yeum, K., Matthan, N.R., Lichtenstein, A.H., Blumberg, J.B. 2010. Chronic and actute effects of walnuts on antioxidant capacity and nutritional status in humans: a randomized, cross-over pilot study. Nutrition Journal. 9(21):1-10.
Chen, C., Ribaya-Mercado, J.D., Mckay, D.L., Croom, E., Blumberg, J.B. 2010. Differential antioxidant and quinone reductase inducing activity of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng. Food Chemistry. 119:445-451.
Tang, G. 2010. Bioconversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 91:1468-1473.
Perry, A.F., Rasmussen, H.M., Johnson, E.J. 2009. Xanthophyll (lutein, zeaxanthin) content in fruits, vegetables, and corn and egg products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 22:9-15.
Tang, G. 2009. Spinach and carrots: vitamin A and health. In: Watson, R., Preedy, V., editors. Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health: Fruits and Vegetables. London, UK: Elsevier. p.381-391.
Tang, G., Russell, R.M. 2009. Beta-carotene as vitamin A. In: Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, S., Pfander, H., editors. Carotenoids: Nutrition and Health. 5th edition. New York, NY: Birkhauser Publishing. p.149-172.
Yeum, K., Aldini, G., Russell, R.M., Krinsky, N.I. 2009. Antioxidant/pro-oxidant actions of carotenoids. In: Britton, G., Liaaen-Jensen, S., Pfander, H., editors. Carotenoids: Nutrition and Health. 5th edition. New York, NY: Birkhauser Publishing. p.235-268.