2012 Annual Report
Objective 2. Determine the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and bioactivity of flavonoids and other phytochemicals from antioxidant-rich foods using in vitro experiments, animal models, and human studies..
Objective 3 Investigate the effect of age on quercetin bioavailability and metabolism due to changes in phase II enzyme activity.
Objective 4. Test whether exposure of rat dams to a “Western” diet during pregnancy and lactation will increase obese phenotypes in their pups and whether dietary flavonoids, particularly isoflavones, will decrease the obese phenotype.
Objective 1: Determine the ability of bioactive plant-based foods, including carotenoid-rich foods to exert biological functions and affect genomic stability. Objective 2: Determine the vitamin A requirement of healthy U.S. adults.
LAB: CAROTENOIDS By recruiting older adults (>60 yr, men and post-menopausal women) without and with metabolic syndrome to ingest bioactive plant foods or histidine dipeptide rich foods, we will measure plasma total antioxidant performance, plasma in vivo oxidative stress biomarkers, plasma water-soluble and fat-soluble antioxidants (carotenoids, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid), plasma biomedical parameters to determine the ability of bioactive plant-based foods, including carotenoid-rich foods, to exert biological functions and affect genomic stability. Also, to explore a possible correlation between a change in serum apoE and a change in Macular Pigment (MP) density, we will measure HDL subpopulations by non-denaturing 2d gel electrophoresis, immuno-blotting, and image analysis. We will measure lipoproteins, antioxidative capacity, and markers of inflammation in order to better define the mechanism by which decreased body weight is associated with increased MP in humans. Using the stable isotope labeled vitamin A (labeled in three different levels, ^13 C_4 , ^13 C_8 , ^13 C_12 – retinyl acetate) and aphereses-autologues technique on human volunteers, we will measure the enrichment of these labeled retinols in human circulations and mathematical modeling to determine vitamin A bioavailability and the requirement of vitamin A through an intervention trial with various levels of vitamin A.
Bolling, B., Chen, C., Mckay, D., Blumberg, J. 2011. Tree nut phytochemicals: composition, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity, impact factors. A systematic review of almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios and walnuts. Nutrition Research Reviews. 24:244-275.
Kamil, A., Chen, C. 2012. Nuts for diabetes prevention and management. National Laboratories of Foods and Drugs. 20(1):323-327.
Bolling, B., Chen, Y., Kamil, A.G., Chen, C. 2012. Assay dilution factors confound measures of total antioxidant capacity in polyphenol-rich juices. Journal of Food Science. 77(2):H69-75.
Bolling, B., Court, M., Blumberg, J., Chen, C. 2011. Microsomal quercetin glucuronidation in rat small intestine depends on age and segment. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 39(8):1406-1414.
Kamil, A., Chen, C. 2012. Health benefits of almonds beyond cholesterol reduction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60:6694-6702.
Nascimento, M., Matsubara, B.B., Matsubara, L.S., Correa, C.R., Pereira, E.J., Moreira, P.L., Carvalho, F.A., Burini, C.H., Padovani, C.R., Yeum, K., Ferreira, A.A. 2011. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 30(10):1540-1548.
Ronchi, C., Fioretto, J., Ferreira, A., Berchieri-Ronchi, C.L., Correa, C., Kurokawa, C., Carpi, M., Moraes, M., Yeum, K. 2012. Biomarkers for oxidative stress in acute lung injury induced in rabbits submitted to different strategies of mechanical ventilation. Journal of Applied Physiology. 112(7):1184-1190.
Yu, J., Johnson, E.J., Shang, F., Lim, A., Zhou, H., Cui, L., Xu, J., Snellingen, T., Liu, X., Wang, N., Liu, N. 2012. Measurement of macular pigment optical density in a healthy chinese population sample. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 53(4):2106-2111.
Vishwanathan, R., Neuringer, M., Snodderly, D., Schalch, W., Johnson, E.J. 2012. Macular lutein and zeaxanthin are related to brain lutein and zeaxanthin in primates. Nutritional Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1179/14768230512Y.0000000024.
Chung, H., Ferreirra, A.A., Epstein, S., Paiva, S., Castaneda-Sceppa, C., Johnson, E.J. 2009. Site-specific concentrations of carotenoids in adipose tissue: relations with dietary and serum carotenoid concentrations in healthy adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 90:533-539.
Suter, P., Tang, G. 2011. Vitmin A, nutrition, and health values of algea: spirulina, chlorella, and dunaliella. Journal of Pharmacy and Nutrition Sciences. 1(2):111-118.
Sing-Chung, L., Yen-Hua, L., Wen-Hsin, C., Chiao-Ming, C., Chen, C., Jen-Fang, L. 2011. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 60(4):474-479.
El-Qudah, J., Qin, J., Tang, G. 2012. Mallow carotenoids determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. American Journal of Applied Sciences. 11(23):3797-3801.