Location: Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture Research
2013 Annual Report
2: Improve the effectiveness, energy efficiency, and economics of water reuse and waste treatment technologies and practices. This will include developing technologies to minimize waste and reclaim water, protein, and/or energy to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of closed-containment systems.
• 2.1 Economic evaluation and life cycle assessment of land-based closed-containment systems for production of food-size Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. • 2.2 Development of low-head and high-volume gas transfer processes to improve the energy efficiency of RAS. • 2.3 Improve technologies and practices that counter the effects of fish pathogens, and reduce the need for chemotherapeutic and antibiotic use within closed-containment production systems. • 2.4 Optimize cell age within MBR systems to maximize metals removal and protein content of waste mixed liquor suspended solids.
3: Conduct production trials of fish and feeds developed through ARS collaborations.
• 3.1 Compare the effects of grain versus fishmeal-based diets on rainbow trout performance and welfare, as well as water quality, water treatment process performance, and waste production rates in RAS operated at low flushing rates. • 3.2 Field test selected rainbow trout (NCCCWA, Leetown, WV) or Atlantic salmon (NCWMAC, Franklin, ME) germplasm resources for performance in intensive recirculating aquaculture systems.
1. Identify criteria to optimize the performance, health, welfare and consumer value of Atlantic salmon and other salmonids grown to food-size in intensive, land-based, closed-containment systems.
2. Improve the effectiveness, energy efficiency, and economics of water reuse and waste treatment technologies and practices. This will include developing technologies to minimize waste and reclaim water, protein, and/or energy to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of closed-containment systems.
3. Conduct production trials of fish and feeds developed through ARS collaborations.
Research on Atlantic salmon performance, health, and welfare, plus system water quality, was completed in replicated water recirculating systems that were operated at either high makeup water (2.5% flow exchange) or low makeup water (0.25% flow exchange) flushing rates. This work has provided valuable information to producers intent on rearing Atlantic salmon in closed-containment systems up to market size in fresh water.
The economics and sustainability of large-scale land-based closed-containment systems for Atlantic salmon growout were investigated. A preliminary life cycle assessment was completed to quantify greenhouse gas and energy use impacts of the model facility and the highlights from the economic model were published in a report. We also collaborated with researchers at SINTEF (Norway) to determine differences in fixed and variable costs and environmental impacts of land-based and net pen salmon production systems based on a standardized evaluation.
Experiments were completed to identify the cost effectiveness of anoxic fluidized-sand biological reactors using heterotrophic denitrification to convert nitrate in the water to benign dinitrogen gas. Organic carbon that is necessary to drive denitrification was supplied by organic acids that were recovered from the supernatant exiting the gravity thickening tanks used to dewater biosolid waste. Findings will provide lower cost yet effective technology to remove nitrate nitrogen from effluent waters of land-based closed-containment systems.
Selected Atlantic salmon (NCWMAC, Franklin, ME) germplasm resources, one group diploid and the other triploid, were cultured from parr to post-smolt size in a growout trial within a commercial-scale intensive water recirculating systems.
Kolarevic, J., Takle, H., Felip, O., Ytteborg, E., Selset, R., Good, C.M., Baeverfjord, G., Asgard, T., Terjesen, B. 2012. Molecular and physiological responses to long-term sublethal ammonia exposure in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquatic Toxicology. 124-125:48-57.
Kolarevic, J., Selset, R., Felip, O., Good, C., Snekvik, K., Takle, H., Ytteborg, E., Baeverfjord, G., Asgard, T., Terjesen, B. 2012. Influence of long term ammonia exposure on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr growth and welfare. Aquaculture Research. 1-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2012.03170.x.
Terjesen, B.F., Summerfelt, S.T., Nerland, S., Ulgenes, Y., Fjaera, S.O., Reiten, B.K., Selset, R., Kolarevic, J., Brunsvik, P., Baeverfjord, G. 2013. Design, dimensioning, and performance of a research facility for studies on the requirements of fish in RAS environments. Journal of Aquaculture Engineering. 54: 49-63.
Davidson III, J.E., Good, C.M., Barrows, F., Welsh, C., Kenney, P., Summerfelt, S.T. 2013. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems. Journal of Aquaculture Engineering. 52: 45-57.
Wong, S., Waldrop, T., Summerfelt, S., Davidson, J., Barrows, F., Kenney, P., Welch, T.J., Wiens, G.D., Snekvik, K., Rawls, J.F., Good, C. 2013. Aquacultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) possess a large core intestinal microbiota that is resistant to variation in diet and rearing density. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. DOI:10.1128/AEM.00924-13.