Location: Commodity Utilization Research
2011 Annual Report
Work was started on the use of cottonseed proteins in wood adhesive formulations. Protein isolates were prepared and used to make adhesives for gluing fiberboards and maple veneers. Initial results indicate that cottonseed protein isolates performed as well as soy protein isolates in comparable formulations for fiber boards. Under some conditions, the cottonseed proteins formed stronger glue joints that did the soy proteins. Protein denaturants appears to improve the adhesive strength of the cottonseed protein formulations in some applications.
As part of an effort to find value in cottonseed’s unusual minor components, a library of gossypol-type compounds is being synthesized and used to support bioactivity studies. Methylated derivatives of gossypolone, a partially oxidized form of gossypol, were prepared from a mixture of methylated gossypol compounds that were recovered from cotton roots. Preliminary antifungal studies were conducted with Aspergillus (A.) flavus, a fungal organism that infects cotton and produces toxins responsible for crop losses. Results from this work indicate that the gossypolone and apogossypolone were better A. flavus growth inhibitors than gossypol. The work also showed that methylated derivatives of these compounds were less inhibitory that the corresponding parent compound. From diffraction studies on these new compounds, the dimethyl form of gossypolone was found to form a crystal structure with an unusual ring structure.
Plasma gossypol levels were measured for two external collaborative projects that were focused on expanding the use of cottonseed products in animal feeds. One study focused on supplementing range fed deer with whole cottonseed. This work showed that when deer are fed a supplement containing whole cottonseed, the animals accumulate modest levels of gossypol in their bloodstreams over time. The levels observed, however, did not cause any ill effects. Once animals were removed from the supplement, plasma gossypol levels dropped rapidly and were less than 10% of their values after five weeks. In a separate study, gossypol levels were monitored in dairy cows fed Upland and Pima cottonseed products. In this work, extrusion processing reduced blood gossypol levels compared with the levels observed when the cottonseed was fed unprocessed.
Dowd, M.K., Wakelyn, P.J. 2010. Cottonseed: current and future utilization. In: Wakelyn, P.J., Chaudhry, R., editors. Cotton: Technology for the 21st. Century. Washington, DC: ICAC Press. p. 437-460.
Cheng, H.N., Biswas, A. 2011. Chemical modification of cotton-based natural materials: products from carboxymethylation. Carbohydrate Polymers. 84:1004-1010.
Cheng, H.N., Gu, Q. 2010. Synthesis of poly (aminoamides) via enzymatic means. In: Cheng, H.N., Gross, R.A., editors. Green Polymer Chemistry: Biocatalysis and Biomaterials. Washington, DC: ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 1043. pp. 255-263.
Cheng, H.N. 2010. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of polyamides and polypeptides. In: Loos, K., editor. Biocatalysis in Polymer Chemistry. Weinheim, Germany:Wiley-VCH. p. 131-141.
Cheng, H.N., Gross, R.A. 2010. Green polymer chemistry: biocatalysis and biomaterials. In: Cheng, H.N., Gross, R.A., editors. Green Polymer Chemistry: Biocatalysis and Biomaterials. Washington, DC: ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 1043. pp 1-14.
Dailey Jr, O.D., Prevost, N.T., Strahan, G.D. 2009. Conversion of methyl oleate to branched-chain hydroxy fatty acid derivatives. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 86:1101-1114.
Dowd, M.K., Boykin, D.L., Meredith Jr, W.R., Campbell, B.T., Bourland, F.M., Gannaway, J.R., Glass, K.M., Zhang, J. 2010. Fatty acid profiles of cottonseed genotypes from the National Cotton Variety Trials. Journal of Cotton Science. 14:64-73.
Dowd, M.K., Kiely, D.E., Zhang, J. 2011. Monte Carlo-based searching as a tool to study carbohydrate structure. Carbohydrate Research. 346:1140-1148.
Zelaya, C.A., Stevens, E.D., Dowd, M.K. 2010. 6,6´-Dimethoxygossypolone. Acta Crystallographica Section C: Crystal Structure Communications. C66:o517-o520.
Bullock, S.L., Hewitt, D.G., Stanko, R.L., Dowd, M.K., Rutledge, J., Draeger, D.A. 2010. Plasma gossypol dynamics in white-tailed deer: Implications for whole cottonseed as a supplemental feed. Small Ruminant Research. 93:165-170.
Ye, W., Chang, H.-L., Wang, L.-S., Huang, Y.-W., Shu, S., Sugimoto, Y., Dowd, M.K., Wan, P.J., Lin, Y.C. 2010. Induction of apoptosis by (-)-gossypol-enriched cottonseed oil in human breast cancer cells. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 26(1):113-119.
Wang, J., Wang, X., Chen, F., Wan, P.J., He, G., Li, Z. 2005. Development of competitive direct ELISA for gossypol analysis. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 53(14):5513-5517.
Mellon, J.E., Zelaya, C.A., Dowd, M.K. 2011. Inhibitory effects of gossypol-related compounds on growth of Aspergillus flavus. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 52:406-412.