Location: Commodity Utilization Research
2012 Annual Report
In the New Orleans, LA, ARS location, our survey of the Cotton Germplasm Database for accessions with unusual fatty acid profiles continued. Chromatography of the Gossypium hirsutum landraces was completed. Like the analysis of the Gossypium barbadense collection, a few accessions were identified that have a high oleic acid trait. We also started the integration of the prior year data although this part of the project is proceeding slower than expected. Four seed types with high oleic acid levels were grown at the winter nursery in Mexico to confirm that the trait was maintained. Analysis of these progeny seed showed that one accession produced good seed and fiber yields, and retained a high level of oleic acid (42%).
To find value in cottonseed’s unusual minor components, testing of our library of gossypol compounds continued. Gossypol, gossypolone, and apogossypolone were tested as growth inhibitors against ten fungi. Gossypolone showed complete inhibition of eight organisms. All three compounds showed at least some growth inhibitory effects against the other two organisms. In addition, the compounds also inhibited some Aspergillus species toxin production.
Our efforts to convert gossypol Schiff’s bases to stable secondary amines have not proved successful. This continues as a research goal. To better characterize these recalcitrant molecules, we have prepared single crystals of two of these compounds with the intention of conducting charge density studies to better understand their lack of reactivity.
Work also continued on the use of cottonseed proteins in wood adhesive formulations. This work was extended by adding crosslinking or denaturing agents to the formulations. Improved results were found by added sodium dodecyl sulfate, a denaturing reagent, but the other agents did not appear to improve adhesive performance. We also found that the methods used to prepare the isolates have some affect on adhesive properties. The influence of these procedures will be studied further. As the preparation of protein isolates adds cost to the formulations, some simple fractionation of cottonseed meal has been undertaken to isolate cheaper protein fractions for adhesive testing.
Efforts to lower trans-fat formation during cottonseed oil hydrogenation also continued. A reactor was built to conduct experiments at elevated hydrogen pressures. This system will also allow sampling over time. A set of experiments has started to study the influence of pressure on mixing, reaction rates, and trans-fatty acid formation. A preliminary set of data has been collected. Trans-fatty acid results are pending.
Among our collaborative efforts, a number of cottonseed isolates and concentrates have been prepared in support of Cotton, Inc. studies on the suitability of cottonseed components as aquaculture feed ingredients. In addition, we have completed a study to show that 90-95% of gossypol can be removed from commercial cottonseed meals by solvent extraction with acid.
Cheng, H.N., Miri, M.J. 2011. Statistical models and NMR analysis of polymer microstructure. In: Cheng, H.N., Asakura, T., English, A.D., editors. NMR Spectroscopy of Polymers: Innovative Strategies for Complex Macromolecules. ACS Symposium Series 1077. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. p. 372-382.
Suganuma, K., Horiuchi, K., Matsuda, H., Cheng, H.N., Aoki, A., Asakura, T. 2011. Stereoregularity of poly (lactic acid) and their model compounds as studied by NMR and quantum chemical calculations. Macromolecules. 44:9247-9253.
Cheng, H.N., Asakura, T., English, A.D. 2011. Innovative NMR strategies for complex macromolecules. In: Cheng, H.N., Asakura, T., English, A.D., editors. NMR Spectroscopy of Polymers: Innovative Strategies for Complex Macromolecules. ACS Symposium Series 1077. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. p. 4-16.
Pettigrew, W.T., Dowd, M.K. 2011. Varying planting dates or irrigation regimes alters cottonseed composition. Crop Science. 51:2155-2164.
Cheng, H.N., Dowd, M.K., Shogren, R.L., Biswas, A. 2011. Conversion of cotton byproducts to mixed cellulose esters. Carbohydrate Polymers. 86:1130-1136.
Sutivisedsak, N., Cheng, H.N., Dowd, M.K., Selling, G.W., Biswas, A. 2012. Evaluation of cotton byproducts as fillers for poly(lactic acid) and low density polyethylene. Industrial Crops and Products. 36:127-134.
Pettigrew, W.T., Dowd, M.K. 2012. Interactions between irrigation regimes and varieties result in altered cottonseed composition. Journal of Cotton Science. 16:42-52.
Mellon, J.E., Zelaya, C.A., Dowd, M.K., Beltz, S.B., Klich, M.A. 2012. Inhibitory effects of gossypol, gossypolone, and apogossypolone on a collection of economically important filamentous fungi. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60:2740-2745.
Biswas, A., Sharma, B.K., Vermillion, K., Willett, J.L., Cheng, H.N. 2011. Synethesis of cyclic ketal from soybean oil and fatty esters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(7):3066-3070.
Denton, T.T., Hardcastle, K.I., Dowd, M.K., Kiely, D.E. 2011. Characterization of D-glucaric acid using NMR, x-ray crystal structure, and MM3 molecular modeling analyses. Carbohydrate Research. 346:2551-2557.
Miri, M.J., Pritchard, B.P., Cheng, H.N. 2011. A versatile approach for modeling and simulating the tacticity of polymers. Journal of Molecular Modeling. 17:1767-1780.
Beisel, C.L., Dowd, M.K., Reilly, P.J. 2005. Conformational analysis of gossypol and its derivatives by molecular mechanics. Journal of Molecular Structure (Theochem). 730(1-3):51-58.
Dao, V-T., Dowd, M.K., Martin, M-T., Gaspard, C., Mayer, M., Michelot, R.J. 2004. Cytotoxicity of enantiomers of gossypol schiff's bases and optical stability of gossypolone. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 39(7):619-624.
Lordelo, M.M., Davis, A.J., Calhoun, M.C., Dowd, M.K., Dale, N.M. 2005. Relative toxicity of gossypol enantiomers in broilers. Poultry Science. 84(9):1376-1382.