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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Improving Human Health Using Functional Food Ingredients from by-Products of Grain Milling Industries Using Innovative Technologies

Location: Functional Foods Research Unit

2011 Annual Report


1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The overall project goal is to develop new technologies for producing commercially viable functional ingredients that promote human health and wellness from bioactive rich byproducts of the grain-milling industry. Our proposed research is built on the successful developments of the Trim Technologies in prior project research cycles that are marketed globally and generate millions of dollars in annual sales. The goal of this project plan is to be implemented through the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Develop new health promoting bioactive hydrosol products and functional soluble dietary fiber compositions by fractionation and enzymatic modification technologies; Objective 2: Characterize the biological activity of the new health promoting bioactive hydrosols and soluble dietary fibers compositions; Objective 3: Examine efficient enzyme systems for polysaccharide fragmentation with analysis and testing including in vitro and extended shelf-life experiments with collaborators from academia, industry and other ARS locations; Objective 4: Create biobased nano- or micro- composites by interacting nano- or micro- particles with newly developed biobased hydrosols and soluble fibers to improve health benefits for humans including the elderly, obese and children; Objective 5: Evaluate the newly created health promoting compositions in food uses and engage end user stakeholder groups in collaborative projects for technology transfer activities of the technologies and associated products.


1b.Approach (from AD-416)
Wholegrain cereal foods and other cereal products contain important sources of phyto-protective and other bioactive components that can occur in short supply in the diets of many consumers of developed nations. The long term goal of this project is to promote optimal health and wellness by creating innovative and economically viable food ingredients from cereal grains. By using scientific and technological conversion of cereal milling byproducts, it is proposed that suitable ingredients can be prepared for incorporation into functional foods. The specific hypothesis is that the conversion of cereal milling byproducts into bioactive functional ingredients will lead to creating natural hydrosol (e.g. colloid solution) and soluble fiber compositions that should be suitable and desirable for use in functional foods. We base that hypothesis on the following observations: .
1)cereal milling byproducts contain large quantities of bioactive and phyto-protective compounds;.
2)research on phytochemical enrichment and extraction has proven that physical, chemical and enzymatic treatment can produce phyto-protective and bioactive rich materials as food ingredients. They do not appear to interfere with processing/manufacturing properties and sensory profiles in functional food formulations. Based on these observations, we propose basic and applied research on these functional ingredients to be created from the cereal milled byproducts by determining their processing parameters and structure/property characteristics. Furthermore, structural and physical properties also will be determined by using microscopy, SEM, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, RVA, NMR and DSC. They also will be evaluated for their biological activities, chemical and processing properties for applications in functional foods. The proposed project will build upon our prior successes with the Trim products, a series of widely commercialized functional ingredients produced from cereal grains. This proposal will help with the continued advancement in food science that has moved the food industry along from just identifying and correcting nutritional deficiencies to creating functional foods that promote optimal health and wellness.


3.Progress Report
The relevance of the research has generated new science and technologies for developing new and better product opportunities, market applications, and health benefits. New, high-value products (both food and non-food) are providing markets for agricultural commodities as well as their by-products as described in National Program 306. New and expanded markets for cereal grains are improving the profitability of American agriculture including the utilization of agricultural by-products. Also there are substantial benefits to American consumers of functional foods based on using these ingredients for reduced medical expenses and improving wellness. New health promoting bioactive hydrosol nutraceuticals are commercially viable bioactive food ingredients that can be easily incorporated into functional food formulations for greater health benefits for consumers. New water-based hydrosol and hydrocolloidal systems are prepared for new developments including expanded TRIM developments (U.S. Patent 7,943,766B2). A number of functional foods with enhanced levels of bioactive ingredients with established efficacy, bioavailability, and safety, are still in development. Research continues on new bioactive ingredients (i.e., antioxidants, polyphenolics, soluble fibers, and prebiotic oligosaccharides). In summary, new nutraceuticals, new functional food ingredients, new water-based hydrosols, and hydrocolloidal systems for new food developments, and a continued expansion of TRIM developments have made substantial progress.


4.Accomplishments
1. Reputed role of antioxidants. Recently, the determination of total antioxidant activities has gained a growing interest as a tool for exploring the reputed role of antioxidant-rich products in the prevention of degenerative disease. The air-classification procedure of separating particles by size has been successfully used for many grain products to obtain the potential nutraceutical ingredients. Corn bran is an excellent source of antioxidant activities and dietary fibers. Agricultural Research Service scientists in the Functional Foods Research Unit at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, IL, conducted studies to explore the extraction technology for antioxidant compounds and characterization of air-classified corn bran particles that could have significant impact on their health benefits. The free phenolic contents and antioxidant activities decreased significantly with the increasing particle sizes in all methods used in the study. Also, studies on the commercial buckwheat flours were found to have substantial antioxidant activities, free, and bound phenolic compositions that have utility for their dietary health importance.

2. Health benefits of oat hydrocolloids. Health benefits of foods with reduced content of fat and calories are important in the struggle against obesity. Agricultural Research Service scientists in the Functional Foods Research Unit at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, IL, prepared oat hydrocolloids, C-TRIM20, and 30 for use in functional foods (U.S. Patent 7,943,766B2). The new oat ß-glucan-rich hydrocolloids have been licensed to Van Drunen Farms/FutureCeuticals and they are marketing the products for use in many successful products. Significant amounts of the soluble oat fiber from the C-TRIM20 and 30 are available for the reputed health benefits of the ß-glucan soluble dietary fiber.

3. Fruit with remarkable taste properties. Miracle Fruit berries are indigenous to tropical West Africa. The ripe red fruits have unusual taste modifying properties that cause sour substances to taste sweet after the inside of the mouth has been thoroughly exposed to the fruit’s pulp. Agricultural Research Service scientists in the Functional Foods Research Unit at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, IL, measured the health benefits of the antioxidant qualities of the Miracle Fruit. Studies have shown that Miracle Fruit not only has unique taste modifying properties, but it also has valuable antioxidant activities when consumed as a whole food or used as functional food ingredients. A minority business in Florida is cultivating the berries for its' remarkable taste modifying properties. The berries are sold fresh, frozen, or freeze dried to specialty food shops found in large cities, such as, New York, Tokyo, London, and Paris. Utilizing the antioxidant activity, particularly in the pulp and seeds, could provide substantial reputed health value.

4. Buckwheat for gluten sensitive people. With the current interests on healthy foods, buckwheat flours are of considerable interest for their health benefits related to gluten sensitive people. Also, many of the health benefits of buckwheat flours are attributed to their high levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. Agricultural Research Service scientists in the Functional Foods Research Unit at the National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research in Peoria, IL, conducted studies to explore the extraction technology for antioxidant compounds and characterization of buckwheat flours. Whole buckwheat flour contained 2–5 times more phenolic compounds than oats or barley, while buckwheat bran and hulls had 2–7 times higher antioxidant activity than barley, triticale, and oats. These results may encourage the increased use of buckwheat flours for increasing the health benefits of some foods.


Review Publications
Lim, J., Inglett, G.E., Lee, S. 2010. Response to consumer demand for reduced-fat foods; multi-functional fat replacers. Japan Journal of Food Engineering. 11(4):163-168.

Inglett, G.E., Chen, D. 2011. Contents of phenolics and flavonoids and antioxidant activities in skin, pulp, and seeds of miracle fruit. Journal of Food Science. 76(3):C479-C482.

Rose, D.J., Inglett, G.E. 2011. A method for the determination of soluble arabinoxylan released from insoluble substrates by xylanases. Food Analytical Methods. 4(1):66-72.

Rose, D.J., Inglett, G.E. 2010. Two-stage hydrothermal treatment of wheat (Triticum aestivum) bran for the production of feruloylated arabinoxylooligosaccharides. Journal of Agricultural Food and Chemistry. 58(10):6427-6432.

Inglett, G.E., Chen, D., Berhow, M., Lee, S. 2011. Antioxidant activity of commercial buckwheat flours and their free and bound phenolic compositions. Food Chemistry. 125:923-929.

Inglett, G.E., Chen, D. 2011. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of air- classified corn bran. Cereal Chemistry. 88(1):36-40.

Rose, D.J., Kim, S., Inglett, G.E. 2010. Influence of jet-cooking and pH on extraction and molecular weight of ß-glucan and arabinoxylan from barley (Hordeum vulgare Prowashonupana). Cereal Chemistry. 87(6):607-611.

Liu, S.X., Singh, M., Inglett, G. 2011. Effect of incorporation of distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on quality of cornbread. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 44:713-718.

Inglett, G.E., Chen, D., Rose, D.J., Berhow, M. 2010. High-shear, jet-cooking, and alkali treatment of corn distillers' dried grains to obtain products with enhanced protein, oil, and phenolic antioxidants. Food Science and Technology International. 16(4):297-308.

Inglett, G.E., Chen, D., Berhow, M.A. 2011. Influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on phenolic composition, antioxidant activities, and viscoelastic properties. Cereal Chemistry. 88:315-320.

Souki, A., Almarza, J., Cano, C., Vargas, M., Inglett, G.E. 2011. Metabolic effects of ß-glucans addition to corn maize flour. In: Preedy, V.R., Watson, R.R., Patel, V.B., editors. Flour and Breads and Their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention. London, Burlington, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Elsevier. p. 451-461.

Last Modified: 11/24/2014
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