2013 Annual Report
2. Detection and attraction: Develop chemical and acoustic detection and attraction systems for pest species and natural enemies: specifically develop trapping systems using floral-derived volatiles to monitor and/or eliminate pest populations and monitor dispersal of augmented parasitoids, detect acoustic signals produced by cryptic/hidden pests for targeted control, and improve detection efficiency through automation.
3. Biological control: Develop strategies for use of parasitoids and predators in IPM of insect pests through behavioral, ecological and physiological studies of their feeding, mating,dispersal and oviposition: Specifically target conservation biological control on overwintering reservoirs of migratory fall army worm and other pests; develop thelytokous strains of fruit fly parasitoids for augmentative biological control, and develop Asian citrus psyllid diets that will facilitate the mass-production of hosts for mass-rearing parasitoids for augmentative parasitoid releases and other forms of biologically-based control; and develop predictive models of pest migration that incorporate climate-change and facilitate the targeting of vulnerable populations.
To precisely target populations of hidden/cryptic pests distinctive spectral and temporal patterns of acoustic signals will be identified. Insect detectability will be optimized by constructing customized attachments or waveguides connecting the sensors to the substrates. Automated systems can be developed that remotely detect, identify, and count specific pests based on the spectral and temporal patterns of signals. An automated system for trapping C. capitata will consist of a lure and a microphone connected to a signal acquisition andanalysis system attached by cable or wireless to a computer. To develop food/host based attractants for opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoids to monitor augmentative releases and to stimulate oviposition volatiles produced by fruit fly larvae, infested fruits and nectar-sourcesare parasitoids to locate hosts, host-habitats and adult food will be identified and formulated into appropriate lures and additives. To develop floral attractants and pheromones for monitoring and/or control of adult lepidopterous pests research will concentrate on phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) plus ß-myrcene, cis-jasmone, benzyl acetate and additional candidate identified by field surveys. Lures will be first tested in flight tunnels and then in the field.
To develop thelytokous strains of fruit fly parasitoids for augmentative biological control, Wolbachia-infected parasitoid surveys will be based on the theory that asexual populations are more persistent in biologically less diverse environments. To develop improved control strategies for lepidopteran pests that recruit natural enemies, combinations of resistant crops and plants supporting natural enemies will be compared in the field using sentinel plants and a split plot arrangement of treatments. To predict the spatial and temporal shifts in infestations of migratory noctuid pests that result from climate change and to target controls, genetic markers will be used to identify source populations from which migratory pathways can be derived, and historical changes in these pathways explained with meteorological and climatic data.
4. Detection and monitoring of infected red palm weevil. Invasive red palm weevil seriously affects palms in an increasing numbers of countries and threatens those in the USA. Acoustic methods were developed for monitoring the efficacy of a control program directed against the red palm weevil. In Spain, larvae inside palm wood were treated with entomopathogenic fungi and then acoustically monitored as they suffered morbidity and death. Use of novel methods to follow the behavior of hidden insects will help identify optimal control techniques against these and other important invasive borers. 5. Conservation of predatory flies. Pests can be suppressed by increasing or concentrating natural enemies with the addition of non-crop plants to agricultural environments that provide shelter, food and alternative hosts. Hover fly larvae are important predators of soft bodied pests such as aphids but adults feed on flower nectar. Plants were identified that attracted particular species of hover flies in northern Florida, and incorporation of these plants, many of them native and requiring little input, could be part an integrated pest management program designed to protect crops, especially those grown under organic regimens. 6. Landscape modification to suppress pest migration. Fall armyworm seriously damages sweet corn in southern Florida during the winter, and starting in early spring, successive generations of moths move northward feeding on cover crops such as forage sorghums. Plots in Florida planted with forage sorghum or two alternative plant species, sunn hemp and cowpeas, were sampled to determine the number of pest caterpillars. Very low numbers of pest caterpillars were found in these alternative plants compared to the standard cover crop. The use of alternative cover crop plants has the potential to reduce fall armyworm populations over a large area and decrease the number of moths moving north each spring. 7. Visual attractants for psyllids. As the vector of the devastating disease, citrus greening, the Asian citrus psyllid continues to threaten new plantings of citrus in Florida and California. While surveillance of dispersing psyllids is critical for spray applications to protect citrus, monitoring methods remain limited. Laboratory studies conducted at ARS/Gainesville, Florida, revealed that LEDs of certain colors were highly attractive to both male and female psyllids. This information can provide the basis for enhancement of current traps for psyllid surveillance or perform as a component of a push-pull system for psyllid management.
Nagoshi, R.N., Paraiso, O., Brambila, J., Kairo, M.T. 2012. Assessing the usefulness of DNA barcoding to identify Oxycarenus hyalinipennis in Florida,a potentially invasive pest of cotton.. Florida Entomologist. 95(4):1174-1181.
Schetelig, M.A., Handler, A.M. 2012. A transgenic embryonic sexing system for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae). Journal of Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 42:790-795.
Herrick, N.J., Mankin, R.W. 2012. Acoustical detection of early instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis (Arecales: Arecaceae). Florida Entomologist. 95:983-990.
Stuhl, C.J., Sivinski, J.M., Teal, P.E., Aluja, M.R. 2012. Responses of multiple species of Tephritid (Diptera) fruit fly parasitoids (Hymenoptera:Braconidae:Opiinae) to sympatric and exotic and fruit volatiles. Florida Entomologist. 95(4):1031-1039.
Cancino, J., Ruiz, L., Viscarret, M., Sivinski, J.M., Hendricks, J. 2012. Application of nuclear techniques to improve the mass production and management of fruit fly parasitoids. Insects. 3:1105-1125.
Goyal, G., Nuessly, G.S., Seal, D.R., Steck, G.J., Capinera, J.L., Meagher Jr, R.L. 2012. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting ulidiidae (Diptera). Environmental Entomology. 41(5):1131-1138.
Ogaugwu, C.E., Schetelig, M.A., Wimmer, E.A. 2013. Transgenic sexing system for Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on female-specific embryonic lethality. Journal of Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 43:1-8.
Cancino, J., Liedo, P., Ruiz, L., Lopez, G., Montoya, P., Barrera, J.F., Sivinski, J.M., Aluja, M. 2012. Discrimination by Coptera haywardi (Hymenoptera:Diapriidae) of hosts previously attacked by conspecifies or by the larval parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology. 22(8):899-914.
Davies, A., Sivinski, J.M., Aluja, M. 2013. Closely related Wolbachia recovered from different genera of Mexican Thelytokous figitidae (Hymenoptera). Florida Entomologist. 96(2):649-643.
Sivinski, J.M., Aluja, M. 2012. The roles of parasitoid foraging for hosts, food and mates in the augmentative control of Tephritidae . Insects. 3(3):668-691.
Xavier, N., Fahong, Y., Schetelig, M.A., Handler, A.M. 2013. An EST database of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrephas suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae). Gene. 517:212-217.
Hay-Roe, M.M., Meagher Jr, R.L., Nagoshi, R.N. 2013. Effect of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strain and diet on oviposition and development in the parasitoid Euplectrus platyhypenae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Biocontrol. 66(1):21-26.
Schetelig, M.A., Handler, A.M. 2012. Strategy for enhanced transgenic strain development for embryonic conditionnal lethality in Anastrepha suspensa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109(24):9348-9353.
Nagoshi, R.N., Meagher Jr, R.L., Hay-Roe, M.M. 2012. Inferring the annual migration patterns of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the U.S. from mitochondrial haplotypes. Ecology and Evolution. 2(7):1458-1467.
Miller, C.N., Lovullo, E.D., Kijek, T.M., Fuller, J.R., Brunton, J.C., Steele, S.P., Taft-Benz, S.A., Richardson, A.R., Kawula, T.H. 2013. PanG, a new ketopantoate reductase involved in pantothenate synthesis. Journal of Bacteriology. 195(5):965-976.
Tofangsazi, N., Buss, E.A., Meagher Jr, R.L., Mascarin, G.M., Arthurs, S.P. 2012. Thermal requirements and development of Herpetogramma phaeopteralis (Lepidoptera:Crambidae:Spilomelinae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 105(5):1573-1580.
Barrionuevo, M., Murua, M., Goane, L., Meagher Jr, R.L., Navarro, F. 2012. Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet. Florida Entomologist. 95(4):944-951.
Meagher Jr, R.L., Nagoshi, R.N. 2012. Differential feeding of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains on a meridic and natural diets. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 105(3):462-470.
Nagoshi, R.N., Meagher Jr, R.L., Hay-Roe, M.M. 2012. Inferring the annual migration patterns of fall armyworm(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the United States from mitochondrial haplotypes. Ecology and Evolution. 2(7):1458-1467.
Unbehend, M., Hanniger, S., Meagher Jr, R.L., Heckel, D.G., Groot, A.T. 2013. Pheromonal divergence between two strains of Spodoptera frugiperda. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 39(3):364-376.
Lampson, B.D., Han, Y.J., Khaliliann, A., Greene, J., Mankin, R.W., Foreman, E.G. 2013. Automatic detection and identification of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) using intraspecific substrate-borne vibrational signals. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 91:154-159.
Mankin, R.W., Smith, M.T. 2011. Eavesdropping on coconut rhinoceros beetles, red palm weevils, Asian longhorned beetles, and other invasive travelers. POMA. 14(010001):1-8. DOI: 10.1121/1.3673073.