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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

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Research Project: Strategies to Optimize Meat Quality and Composition of Red Meat Animals

Location: Meat Safety & Quality Research

Project Number: 5438-31430-005-00
Project Type: Appropriated

Start Date: Aug 01, 2012
End Date: Jul 31, 2017

Objective:
Objective 1: Develop strategies to manage and improve variation in meat quality and composition traits. 1.1: Determine the temperature and pH profiles for optimal quality of modern pork. 1.2: Develop genetic markers for pork lean color stability, tenderness, water holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, sarcomere length, and postmortem proteolysis. 1.3: Evaluation of plasma glucose and lactate levels at exsanguination as predictors of meat quality attributes. 1.4: Evaluate the relationships between mitochondrial abundance and efficiency and animal variation in beef lean color stability. 1.5: Determine seasonal variation in fatty acid profile of belly adipose from first-pull and run-out hogs fed diets differing in fatty acid profile. 1.6: Determine variation in fatty acid profile of belly fat from first-pull and run-out gilts, barrows, and immuno-castrated barrows. Objective 2: Develop non-invasive technology to improve meat quality, composition, and healthfulness traits. 2.1: Develop regression equations for prediction of ribeye (longissimus) area and other value determining characteristics using the laser-enhanced VBG2000 beef carcass grading camera. 2.2: Determine the effect of light source on robustness of regression equations for prediction of marbling score using the laser-enhanced VBG2000 beef carcass grading camera. 2.3: Develop regression equations for prediction of beef fatty acid profiles with on-line visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopic evaluation of the ribeye (longissimus) and subcutaneous fat during beef carcass grading. 2.4: Develop regression equations for on-line prediction of fatty acid profiles of pork belly fat with VISNIR spectroscopy. Objective 3: Improve product quality and healthfulness, and food animal growth and production efficiencies, through development of alternatives to conventional antimicrobials utilizing novel metagenomic and microbial genomic technologies.

Approach:
The effects of the interaction of muscle pH and temperature decline on various pork quality traits will be determined. Genetic markers will be identified that can be used to optimize various pork quality traits. Plasma glucose and lactate levels at exsanguination will be evaluated as predictors of meat quality traits. Mitochondrial abundance and efficiency will be evaluated as mechanisms controlling variation in lean color stability. Season, marketing group, and immuno-castration will be investigated as sources of variation in pork fat quality. The USMARC beef carcass grading camera accuracy will be enhanced by developing prediction models using more stable light sources and laser-enhanced placement adjustments. Healthfulness and quality of beef and pork will be improved by developing visible and near-infrared prediction of fatty acid profile of lean and fat. The effect of alternatives to antibiotics such as lysozyme for young piglets on growth and efficiency will be determined. In addition, the potential for improvement of product quality and efficiency will be determined for diet modified gut microbial composition.

Last Modified: 9/2/2014
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