Genomic and Metagenomic Approaches to Enhance Efficient and Sustainable Production of Beef Cattle
Location: Genetics, Breeding, & Animal Health
Project Number: 5438-31320-012-00
Start Date: Feb 05, 2013
End Date: Feb 04, 2018
Objective 1: Improve the draft bovine genome sequence and enhance annotation of genes (both protein-coding and noncoding), gene functions, and gene-gene interactions (functional networks).
Objective 2: Identify inter-individual genome sequence variation in beef cattle, and explore the effect of this variation on a wide range of production traits.
Objective 3: Develop information about variation in metagenomes associated with beef cattle production, including microenvironments within the animals or their production settings, and interactions of metagenomes with host genotypes from birth through reproductive or harvest endpoints.
Current challenges to the beef industry include pressure to reduce use of antibiotics, create healthier products, and a need to accommodate dietary changes imposed as corn is diverted to use as a fuel. The Project is designed to interact with and complement approved Projects in (1) the Nutrition Research Unit on feed efficiency and impacts of using distiller’s grain as a feedstuff, (2) the Animal Health Research and Meat Safety and Quality Research Units on reducing antibiotic use, and creating a healthier product, and (3) the Reproduction Research Unit to explore lifetime productivity of cows. This Project Plan is the primary vehicle for including genomics tools and approaches in these collaborating Projects, and the goals are to use genomics and related technologies to begin to address the current industry challenges. Our hypothesis is that substantial genetic variation exists among beef cattle that could be used to meet these challenges through selection. We expect that some desirable genetic effects may be exerted through interactions with the microbiome, and propose that enhanced knowledge of the bovine genome and microbial communities associated with the animals and their production environment can be utilized to target improvements in production, health, food safety, and product quality traits. The goals of the Project are to use molecular genetics and genomics techniques to identify inter-individual genome variation associated with the health, lifetime reproductive efficiency, feed efficiency, and food safety phenotypes recorded on the large research herd maintained in cooperation with the other approved Project Plan in the Genetics and Breeding Unit at USMARC. The Project will also develop knowledge of the microbial communities associated with beef production, and examine putative interactions between the bovine genome and microbiome variation. Since the current draft cattle genome assembly is inadequate to support our approaches, we will participate in international efforts to improve it. The Project will provide the industry with technology to support prediction of genetic merit for measures of animal health, fertility, and efficiency that are difficult to record outside a research setting. It will also provide basic knowledge to address the role(s) of microbial populations in beef production, while continuing commitment to support basic research and tools for investigation of genome biology of ruminants, historically a key role of USMARC in cattle genomics. We will expand this role to microbiomes associated with beef cattle production.