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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: SMALL GRAINS GENETICS AND GERMPLASM ENHANCEMENT

Location: Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research

Project Number: 5366-21000-028-00
Project Type: Appropriated

Start Date: Mar 21, 2008
End Date: Mar 20, 2013

Objective:
Objective 1: Develop, evaluate, and apply molecular tools, including molecular genotyping and transposon tagging, to small grains genetics and germplasm enhancement research. Sub-objective 1.A. Identify and characterize genes involved in barley seed phytate content using Ds-generated (low phytate) LP insertion mutants. Sub-objective 1.B. Improve the Ogle1040/TAM O-301 (OT) genetic linkage map by 1) developing and mapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based markers and 2) physically anchoring linkage groups to chromosomes using aneuploid oat stocks. Objective 2: Identify, map, and develop molecular markers for disease resistance and quality genes, and use these resources to move favorable alleles from National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) accessions and other sources into adapted plant types. Sub-objective 2.A. Identify wheat and barley landraces from the NSGC likely to possess unexploited genes for resistance to new virulent races of the stem rust pathogen. Sub-objective 2.B. Introgress quantitative and qualitative resistance to barley stripe rust into adapted germplasm via marker assisted selection (MAS). Sub-objective 2.C. Identify, map, and develop molecular markers for quantitative trait loci (QTL) in barley cultivars Azhul and/or Falcon conditioning high ß-glucan (BG) levels. Sub-objective 2.D. Map and introgress resistance to crown rust of oat into high-yielding Aberdeen germplasm via MAS. Objective 3: Develop improved barley and oat cultivars meeting the needs of conventional and specialty markets for both dryland and irrigated production systems, including barley cultivars and/or germplasm with resistance to new races of the stem rust pathogen (Ug99). Sub-objective 3.A. Develop improved spring and winter malt barley and specialty cultivars. Sub-objective 3.B. Develop oat cultivars combining the enhanced levels of disease resistance from southern U.S. with the superior yield and quality of ARS-Aberdeen lines. The objectives in our project are complementary and interconnected. Proven methods and existing germplasm will be used to develop commercial cultivars for growers, and innovative new resources will be developed to facilitate genetic investigations and to enhance the efficiency of future germplasm and cultivar development. These resources will be made available to other researchers and to the agribusiness community.

Approach:
This project seeks to generate improved small grains germplasm, including barley and oat cultivars, and to develop and use genomic tools that will facilitate future germplasm improvements. Most of the work will focus on barley and oat improvement. However, wheat stem rust screening of landrace accessions from the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) will be included as part of a coordinated ARS effort to mitigate the threat of emerging races. The germplasm improvement work for barley will focus on issues of importance in the intermountain west, such as improving winter malt barleys and developing specialty types to expand market opportunities for producers. The oat work has a more national focus with emphasis on disease resistance. The research aimed at improving methodologies and tools for genomic research and germplasm enhancement will produce new resources for researchers, such as Ds-generated mutant barley stocks, more PCR-based oat molecular, and a more complete oat genetic map. This project also seeks to integrate the work of several scientists to achieve greater efficiency and productivity by sharing facilities, materials, and ideas among the project team members. Replacing 5366-21000-016-00D. 7/2003 BSL-1; 06/04/2004 BSL-1; 05/10/2005 FY06 Program Increase $22,275 12/19/05 Replacing 5366-21000-024-00D 03/08; BSL-1; 7/07 FY10 Program Increase $82,500 1/25/10

Last Modified: 4/23/2014
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