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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Genetic and Biochemical Basis of Soft Winter Wheat Quality

Location: Corn, Soybean and Wheat Quality Research Unit

Project Number: 3607-43440-007-00
Project Type: Appropriated

Start Date: Jul 22, 2010
End Date: Jul 21, 2015

Objective:
1. Develop rapid methods to detect improved milling and flour quality in commerce. 2. Develop improved standard cake baking method and alternatives for chlorinated flour. 3. Characterize the anatomical and biochemical differences linked to genetic markers for quality in collaboration with regional genotyping labs and state breeding programs. 4. Define soft wheat quality targets and measure eastern U.S. soft wheat breeding materials against those targets for the breeding programs and the milling industry.

Approach:
The SWQL devotes between 60 and 70% of its efforts to testing new wheat germplasm for suitability as cultivars of the soft winter wheat classes. It uses American Association of Cereal Chemistry standard protocols that allow results to be compared across regions and through time. The results are compiled into multi-year datasets to test for improved milling and baking characteristics of new cultivars. The results of collaborative evaluations of milling and baking quality in breeding materials have been used to improve both the understanding and the genetic structure of breeding populations. To improve the selection of cultivars and use of soft wheat we will develop rapid methods to detect improved milling and flour quality in commerce. We will select untempered milling methods in combination with other rapid methods to measure milling and flour quality by measuring milling yield by standard AACC methods and then comparing them to samples milled with reduced tempering to generate prediction models. We also will select NIR or NIR with hyperspectral analysis methods to measure milling and flour quality. Baking method improvement will focus on cake baking methods and alternatives for chlorinated flour. We will develop a cake baking method with zero-trans fat shortening through standard testing of formula modification. Then it will be used to compare the effects of heat treatment, chlorination and GBSS mutation (waxy wheat) on starch pasting and cake baking performance. The optimum treatments will be combined to test the use of waxy wheat flour for replacing chlorinated flour for cake baking. Milling quality may relate to specific anatomical differences linked to genetic markers for quality. We will compare grain from near-isogenic lines for milling and flour quality. Specifically we will contrast cells from maternal tissue, aleurone and sub-aleurone from near-isogenic lines. Finally all this information will be summarized and reviewed through industry panels on a regular basis to refine the soft wheat quality targets and measure eastern U.S. soft wheat breeding materials against those targets for the breeding programs and the milling industry.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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