Project Number: 5438-31000-093-00
Start Date: Jul 31, 2012
End Date: Jul 30, 2017
The overall objective of this project is to understand the factors controlling establishment of the ovarian reserve (i.e. the number of ovarian follicles that a heifer has at birth) and development of the female reproductive tract. The Reproduction Research Unit at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center conducts research to identify highly fertile replacement females. Identifying these females early in life can improve overall production efficiency. For example, a replacement heifer must wean 3 to 5 calves to recoup her development costs or incur a net loss for the enterprise. The most practical method for evaluating reproductive capacity in beef heifers is palpation of the reproductive tract. This allows the palpator to identify heifers with small under-developed reproductive tracts. Adding ultrasonography to this process in the previous project demonstrated that antral follicle counts were also an indicator of heifer fertility. Limitations of palpation based evaluation of heifers are the number of animals that can be examined in a day and the age at which these exams can be performed. Understanding the physiological, genetic, and nutritional factors that influence development of the female reproductive tract will allow the implementation of novel technologies to aid in identifying replacement heifers at a very young age. Once they are identified, management strategies can be administered more efficiently to prepare them to conceive as early as possible in their first breeding season. Understanding the interaction of the genes controlling reproductive tract development with genes controlling production traits will determine the impacts of using genetic markers for production traits on reproductive performance in beef cows.