Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: April 19, 2000
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Although soil nutrient levels may be reduced very slowly due to continued manure application, exporting nutrients in the form of hay may reduce the potential for ground and surface water impairment. Enhanced nutrient uptake is contingent upon selection of appropriate species and cultivars. Among perennial forage crops typically grown in the southeastern USA, bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] has the greatest capacity to remove nutrients because of its yield potential. Similarly, there are many temperate annual forages commonly used to provide livestock feed when tropical perennial forages are dormant during the winter. We determined yield and nutrient uptake differences among these forages receiving both types of manure. Six hybrid cultivars and common bermudagrass were fertilized with swine effluent or broiler litter. Nitrogen and P uptake by common bermudagrass was similar to or greater than that of all the hybrids despite the fact that common yielded less dry matter. Seventeen commonly- available temperate grasses and legumes were grown under similar cultural conditions. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) yielded greater dry weight than all other species except ball clover (Trifolium nigrescens Viv.) and oats (Avena sativa L.). Clovers were susceptible to Sclerotina crown and stem rot (Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss.)that reduced plant density, vigor, and yield. In the temperate species, there was a negative or low correlation between P concentration and P uptake (r=0.12 an -0.11 in 1997 and 1998, respectively), and a high correlation between dry weight and P uptake (r=0.95 and 0.89 in 1997 and 1998, respectively).