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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Trichothecene Toxin Effects on Barley Callus and Seedling Growth.

Authors
item Dahleen, Lynn
item McCormick, Susan

Submitted to: Cereal Research Communications
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 20, 2000
Publication Date: January 1, 2001
Citation: Dahleen, L.S., Mc Cormick, S.P. 2001. Trichothecene toxin effects on barley callus and seedling growth. Cereal Research Communications 29:115-120.

Interpretive Summary: Fusarium head blight (FHB) has caused devastating losses to barley growers in ND, MN and SD since 1993. A major component of these losses has been the formation of toxins like deoxynivalenol (DON) by the Fusarium species that cause FHB. Genetic transformation of barley with genes that chemically inactivate or transport the toxins out of cells has potential for reducing DON levels. The ability to directly select cells or seedlings containing these genes would simplify production of transformed plants. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of DON and a related toxin, DAS, on barley unorganized cell growth in tissue cultures and seedling germination, root and shoot growth. While the toxins did affect unorganized cell growth, the differences were not large enough for effective selection. Neither toxin had an affect on seed germination. Both toxins inhibited root and shoot growth, and DAS had larger and earlier effects than DON. The results indicate that DAS may be usable for screening progeny of transgenic plants for anti-toxin genes.

Technical Abstract: Fusarium head blight (FHB) has caused devastating losses to barley growers in ND, MN and SD since 1993, partly due to the formation of protein synthesis inhibitor toxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) by the Fusarium species that cause FHB. Genetic transformation of barley with genes that chemically inactivate or transport the toxins out of cells has potential for reducing DON levels. The ability to directly select for callus cells transformed with these genes would simplify production of transgenic plants and avoid the introduction of a second selectable gene. Differences in seedling growth on medium containing toxin would help identify transgenic plants expressing the antitoxin genes. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of DON and the related toxin diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) on barley callus growth and seedling germination, root and shoot growth. The effects of the toxins on callus growth were small. Although statistical differences were seen at the higher toxin levels after eight weeks, the differences were not large enough for selection between toxin resistant and toxin susceptible calli. Neither toxin had an effect on seed germination. DON at 5 and 10 mg/L significantly reduced root growth by day 7, and 10 mg/L significantly reduced shoot growth by day 4. The effects of DAS were greater, with all toxin levels significantly reducing root growth by day 2 and shoot growth by day 4. The results indicate that DAS may be usable for screening progeny of transgenic plants for expression and segregation of anti-toxin genes.

Last Modified: 4/16/2014
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