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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Cover Crops and Black Bean Production

Authors
item WEBBER, CHARLES
item Shrefler, James - OSU, LANE RESEARCH CENTER
item Roberts, B - OSU, LANE RESEARCH CENTER

Submitted to: Proceedings of Horticultural Industry Show
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: February 2, 2001
Publication Date: January 5, 2001
Citation: WEBBER III, C.L., SHREFLER, J.W., ROBERTS, B.W. COVER CROPS AND BLACK BEAN PRODUCTION. PROCEEDINGS OF HORTICULTURAL INDUSTRY SHOW. 2001. P. 108-111.

Interpretive Summary: The growth and yield of spring planted dry beans can be greatly influenced by the winter cover crop and the spring tillage system that proceeds spring planting. Winter cover crops and spring tillage can also affect soil erosion, weed competition, and conservation of soil moisture. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of winter cover crops, tillage/planting systems, and weed control on black bean yield components. The five winter cover crops, planted in the fall of 1999, were "barley" (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar (cv.) 'Tambar', oats (Avena sativa) cv. 'Nora', "rye" (Secale cereale) cv. 'Maton', "wheat" (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. 'Coker', and "None" (no winter cover crop). The following spring black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. 'Black Knight' were planted at Lane, OK. The four weed control treatments included a "weedy check", a "early season", a "late season", and a "full season" treatment. In the weedy check treatment the weeds were allowed to grow throughout the 90-day growing season. Weeds were removed by handweeding during the first 45 days for the early season weed control, during the last 45 days for the late season weed control, and during the entire growing season for the full season weed control treatment. Beans following oats produced significantly greater black bean yields (332 lb/a) than beans planted after either rye (191 lb/a) or wheat (146 lb/a). The conventional tilled/planted black beans had 17% lower plant populations (44,536 plants/a) than the no-tillage beans (53,521 plants/a). Early weed removal was more beneficial than weed removal during the second half of the season. The best production system included oats as a winter cover crop, the no-tillage planting system, and either an early or a full season weed control.

Technical Abstract: Winter cover crops, tillage/planting systems, and weed control can all affect soil erosion, weed competition, soil moisture conservation, and dry bean production. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of winter cover crops, tillage/planting systems, and weed control on black bean yield components. The five winter cover crops, planted in the fall of 1999, were "barley" (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Tambar', oats (Avena sativa) cv. 'Nora', "rye" (Secale cereale) cv. 'Maton', "wheat" (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. 'Coker', and "None" (no winter cover crop). Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. 'Black Knight' were planted in the spring at Lane, OK on 36-in row spacings at 90,000 seeds/a. The four weed control treatments included a "weedy check", a "early season", a "late season", and a "full season" treatment. In the weedy check treatment the weeds were allowed to grow throughout the 90-day growing season. Weeds were removed by handweeding during the first 45 days for the early season weed control, during the last 45 days for the late season weed control, and during the entire growing season for the full season weed control treatment. When averaged across tillage/planting systems and weed control levels, the beans following oats produced significantly greater black bean yields (332 lb/a) than either rye (191 lb/a) or wheat (146 lb/a). The conventional tilled/planted black beans had 17% lower plant populations (44,536 plants/a) than the no-tillage beans (53,521 plants/a). Early weed removal was more beneficial than weed removal during the second half of the season. The best production system included oats as a cover crop, the no-tillage planting system, and either an early or a full season weed control.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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