Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: June 1, 2001
Publication Date: October 20, 2004
Citation: Grisham, M.P. 2004. Sugarcane Mosaic. In: Lapierre, H., Signoret, P., editors. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Poaceae (Gramineae). Paris: INRA. p. 703-707. Technical Abstract: A detailed, technical description of sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and a summary of its role as a pathogen of sugarcane is presented for inclusion in the book entitled Virus Diseases of Poaceae (Gramineae). Sugarcane mosaic virus is a definitive member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. The virus occurs worldwide and infects sugarcane, maize, sorghum, and other grasses in the family Gramineae. The virion is not enveloped and is filamentous, usually flexuous with a modal length of 730-750 nm and a diameter of 13 nm. The SCMV RNA is unipartite, positive-sense, single-stranded of about 10kb in length. The nucleotide sequences of the protein coat gene and the amino acid sequence of the protein coat show that SCMV is one of four closely related potyviruses, SCMV, sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), and johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV). A number of strains of SCMV have been identified including SCMV-MB (formerly MDMV-B), SCMV-A, SCMV-B, SCMV-D, SCMV-E, SCMV-SC, SCMV-BC, and SCMV-Sabi. The virus is transmitted in a non-persistent manner by several species of aphids. The virus is vegetatively spread from field to field by infected sugarcane stalk cuttings. Field diagnosis of infected plants is primarily by visual observation of symptoms. Immunossay and nucleic acid-based diagnostic protocols are available. The general symptom of mosaic disease on sugarcane and most other hosts is a pattern of contrasting shades of green resulting from varying levels of chlorophyll concentration in the leaf blade. Sugarcane mosaic can cause yield losses as high as 30-40% in susceptible cultivars. Host resistance is the most effective method of control.