Submitted to: Biocontrol
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 7, 2002
Publication Date: April 20, 2003
Citation: RIDDICK, E.W. Factors Affecting Progeny Production of Anaphes iole. BIOCONTROL.2003.v48.p.177-189. Interpretive Summary: The fairyfly Anaphes iole is a wasp that parasitizes the egg stage of Lygus bugs in North America. Current research is considering factors that may optimize the mass rearing of this fairyfly using Lygus hesperus eggs as hosts. In this study, fairyfly fertility (i.e., production of pupae or adults) was altered by host density as well as day of exposure to hosts. Overall, this research suggests that exposing newly-emerged fairyfly females to hosts for only one day, without food, could be more efficient for continuous rearing of this wasp. This procedure would maximize the production of female offspring. This study should be of interest to entomologists, pest management specialists, and biological control practioners in private industry, university, or government service.
Technical Abstract: Anaphes iole Girault (Hymenoptera:Mymaridae) is a native, solitary egg parasitoid of Lygus spp.(Heteroptera:Miridae) in North America. Current research is considering factors that may optimize the in-vivo mass rearing of this parasitoid using Lygus hesperus Knight as host. In this study, parasitoid fertility (i.e., production of pupae or adults) was examined in light of host density, day of exposure to hosts and food, and parasitoid age and mating status. Percent parasitism averaged nearly 50% at a moderate host density (41 to 70 eggs per patch) and there was no significant difference in parasitism rate between the high density (71 to 100 eggs per patch) and the low density (10 to 40 eggs per patch). Anaphes iole fertility never exceeded 50 progeny in 24 h. Significantly more adult females were produced on the first day rather than the second day that ovipositing females were exposed to host patches, regardless of whether food was present in experimental arenas. Parasitoid age (0 d vs 1 d old) and mating status had no sinificant effect on the production of A. iole adults.However, sex ratio was slightly female-biased for progeny generated from both 0 d and 1 d old mated females. Overall, this research suggests that exposing newly-emerged A. iole females to hosts for only one day, without food, could be more efficient for continuous rearing of this parasitoid. This procedure would maximize the production of female offspring.