Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Efficacy of Using in-Carton Fumigation with the Quarantine Treatment Against Codling Moth on Apples Intended for Export to Japan

item Hansen, James D
item Albano, Dennis
item Heidt, Mildred

Submitted to: HortTechnology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 15, 2002
Publication Date: September 15, 2002
Citation: Hansen, J.D., Albano, D.J., Heidt, M.L. 2002. Efficacy of using in-carton fumigation with the quarantine treatment against codling moth on apples intended for export to Japan. HortTechnology. 12:441-443.

Interpretive Summary: Japan requires apples from the United States to be fumigated with methyl bromide to control possible infestations by the codling moth. Because the original confirmation tests were done with wooden boxes, all subsequent fumigations require fruits to be in wood bins during commercial fumigation. Fruits in wood bins are either unsorted apples from the orchards or ungraded presorted fruits from cold storage. Hence, this fumigation procedure includes fruits not intended for export to Japan. A better approach would be to fumigate after the apples have been culled, sorted, and graded on the packing line. In this study, we examine the efficacy of the approved fumigation on codling moth infested apples in specially constructed, vented cartons. We examine fruits in two container sizes, 20-lb and 40-lb, and concluded that the treatment was efficacious after treating more than 7,000 larvae in each container and finding no survivors.

Technical Abstract: The two-component quarantine treatment was shown to be effective against at least 7,000 codling moth fifth instar larvae infesting 'Fuji' apples in each required confirmation test involving two sizes of cartons. After cold storage for 44 days at 40 degrees F (2.2 degrees C), infested fruits were placed in either 20 lb or 40 lb vented cartons, then fumigated with 0.056 oz/ft13 (56g/m3) of methyl bromide for 2 hours 50 degrees F (10 degrees C). After each treatment, either no survivors were present or no moribund larvae survived beyond the first week of post evaluation of the larvae.

Last Modified: 4/22/2015
Footer Content Back to Top of Page