Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 18, 2003
Publication Date: March 1, 2004
Citation: Bett Garber, K.L., Champagne, E.T., Ingram, D.A., Grimm, C.C. 2004. Impact of Iron Source on Stability of Simulated Rice Fortificant and Flavorit Imparts to Rice. Cereal Chemistry. 81(3):384-388. Interpretive Summary: Iron deficiency is the most abundant nutritional problem in the world. Fortifying rice will help provide much of the world's iron needs. Extruded kernels resembling rice were fortified with elemental iron or iron sulfate to determine the effects of iron fortification on table rice flavor. The effects of other nutrients (zinc, thiamin and folic acid) were included in the experiment. Elemental iron had less detrimental effects on rice flavor than iron sulfate. There was less development of off-flavors, such as sour taste and water-like flavor and less change in typical rice flavors such as grain/starchy. The other nutrients affected flavor also. Storage stability of the extruded kernels were monitored by development of lipid oxidation products. Kernels with elemental iron were more stable than those with iron sulfate. Populations around the world can benefit from fortifying rice with this product.
Technical Abstract: An extruded grain designed to look like a rice kernel fortified with one of two sources of iron (elemental iron and FeSO4), zinc, thiamin and folic acid was mixed with milled Calrose rice at ratios of 1:50, 1:100, and 1:200. The intensities of water-like, sour taste, hay-like musty, and alfalfa/grassy/green bean flavors were enhanced by the addition of ferrous sulfate, ferrous sulfate plus multiple fortifications, and multiple fortificants without iron at the highest concentration (1:50 ratio) were examined. Astringent mouthfeel was likewise affected by addition of ferrous sulfate and ferrous sulfate plus multiple fortificants. Overall, the elemental iron with multiple fortificants affected the flavor of the base rice the least. Lipid oxidation products increased the first 2 to 3 months and were more concentrated in samples with FeSO4 as the iron source.