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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Diagnosis and Control of Avian Influenza in Agricultural Systems

Author
item Swayne, David

Submitted to: Japanese Society of Layer Industries Science Conference
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: May 1, 2002
Publication Date: May 13, 2002
Citation: Swayne, D.E. 2002. Diagnosis And Control Of Avian Influenza In Agricultural Systems. Japanese Society of Layer Industries Science Conference.

Technical Abstract: Avian influenza is a disease that occurs in domestic poultry around the world and is caused by a type A influenza virus (Family: Orthomyxoviridae). The disease is seen as low (mildly pathogenic) or high virulent forms (highly pathogenic). The mildly pathogenic avian influenza causes respiratory disease and egg production drops that are indistinguishable from other poultry respiratory pathogens such as infectious bronchitis or Newcastle disease. The highly pathogenic avian influenza causes high mortality, system disease similar to velogenic Newcastle disease or some acute toxin exposures. Diagnosis is best make by virus isolation and identification, but detection of avian influenza virus specific antigens or nucleic acids is highly suggestive. Serologic surveillance is important and is usually conducted with the agar gel immunodiffusion or ELISA tests. Most avian influenza viruses are mildly pathogenic and belong to the hemagglutinin serotypes 1-15. However, a small number of the H5 and H7 isolates are highly pathogenic for domestic poultry. These highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have emerged by mutation of certain H5 and H7 mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses as has been well-documented in the 1983-1984 H5N2 outbreak in the USA, 1994-1995 H5N2 outbreak in Mexico and 1999-2000 H7N1 outbreak in Italy. Control of avian influenza varies with the pathotype. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is controlled by the federal government using quarantine, depopulation and indemnification methods. By contrast, mildly pathogenic avian influenza is controlled by the state governments and poultry industries.

Last Modified: 4/20/2014
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