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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium in Experimentally Challenged Broilers by Nitrate Adaptation and Chlorate Supplementation in Drinking Water

Authors
item Jung, Yong Soo
item Anderson, Robin
item Byrd, James
item Edrington, Thomas
item Moore, Randle
item Callaway, Todd
item Mcreynolds, Jackson - TX A&M UNIVERSITY
item Nisbet, David

Submitted to: Journal of Food Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 19, 2002
Publication Date: April 1, 2003

Interpretive Summary: Salmonella bacteria are recognized as one of the major foodborne pathogens in the United States. Poultry products are one of the major sources of foodborne illness due to this pathogen. In the present study, we tested the ability of two experimental compounds, nitrate and chlorate, to reduce Salmonella in chickens. The results show that giving chickens a combination of these two compounds reduces the number of these bacteria by 99%. This research will lead to the development of a product to be used by the poultry industry to produce safer food products.

Technical Abstract: Bacteria in the genus Salmonella are recognized as major foodborne pathogens. Consequently, the elimination of Salmonella before harvest is desired. In the present study, the effect of two feed supplements on Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) presence in the ceca of market-age broilers was determined. These supplements were an experimental sodium chlorate product (ECP), and sodium nitrate (SN). These supplements were given both singly or in combination. Broilers were orally challenged with an antibiotic-marked strain of ST. Market-age broilers were divided into four groups of 20 birds each: control, SN-treatment (574 mg NaNO3/kg feed), ECP-treatment (15 mM NaClO3 equivalents), and ECP in combination with SN-treatment. The SN treatment was administered via the feed for 5 days immediately preslaughter and ECP was provided via ad libitum access to drinking water for the last 2 days before slaughter at market-age. Cecal contents were aseptically removed and subjected to bacterial analysis. Significant (P < 0.05) reductions (approximately 2 log) occurred in broilers receiving ECP in combination with SN when compared to untreated controls in trial 1 and 2. There was no significant effect of the SN only treatment on ST concentrations in either trial suggesting nitrate by itself did not alter ST populations. These results suggest that nitrate pretreatment enhances the bactericidal effect of chlorate on cecal ST. We hypothesize that increasing ST nitrate reductase activity results in increased reduction of chlorate to cytotoxic chlorite, with a concomitant decrease in cecal ST. Based on these results, pre-adaptation with SN followed by ECP supplementation immediately preharvest can be a potential strategy to reduce ST in broilers.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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