Submitted to: Journal of Plant Nutrition
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 25, 2003
Publication Date: October 3, 2003
Citation: Sistani, K.R., Pederson, G.A., Brink, G.E., Rowe, D.E. 2003. Nutrient uptake by ryegrass cultivars and crabgrass from a highly phosphorus enriched soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 26:2521-2535. Interpretive Summary: In the Southeastern US, mixture of cool- and warm-season forages provides a year-long growing season and sink for nutrients released from animal manure application. Ryegrass is a cool-season high quality forage, which is used widely throughout the Southeast for livestock grazing and hay production. Crabgrass is a summer annual, very productive forage for grazing and haying. The combination of ryegrass and crabgrass in a year-long green pasture system was studied for yield production and nutrient removal from soil. The ryegrass cultivars used were: Marshall, Rio, Jackson, TAM90, and Gulf during winter and followed by crabgrass variety Red River during summer. The ryegrass was grazed during the winter until early spring and then harvested once in early June. Cultivar Rio produced the most yields in both years. Cultivars Gulf and TAM90 also produced high yield under optimum moisture conditions. In 2001, crabgrass followed the cultivar TAM90 and produced the greatest yield. Cultivars Marshal and Rio were highly effective in removing P from soil. Therefore, the combination of ryegrass followed by crabgrass may provide an effective forage-livestock management system in the Southeastern states.
Technical Abstract: The long-term poultry litter application to crop and pasture lands may result in the buildup of nutrients, particularly phosphorus (P) in the soil. Poultry producers use poultry litter in place of chemical fertilizers to grow crops or forages for grazing and haying. Cool-season ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and warm-season crabgrass (Digitaria ciliaris) are annual forages commonly grown in the Southeast Region of the USA. The combination of two gives an alternative year-round green pasture for a forage-livestock system. We initiated a study to evaluate the P uptake efficiency of five ryegrass cultivars (Marshall, Rio, Jackson, TAM90, and Gulf) grown during the winter and spring followed by the annual crabgrass variety Red River during the summer. The experiment was conducted during 2000 and 2001 growing seasons in Mize, Mississippi, on a highly P enriched Ruston silt loam soil. The ryegrass was grazed during winter then harvested once in early June. Cultivar Rio produced the greatest dry matter (DM) in both growing seasons. However, in 2001, due to the optimum soil moisture condition, cultivars Gulf and TAM90 produced more DM than 2000, an extremely dry year. In 2001 crabgrass planted after TAM90 produced significantly greater DM (7565 kg ha-1) than crabgrass following the other ryegrass cultivars. Cultivar Marshal was the most effective in removing P from soil in 2000 (7.38 kg ha-1), while Rio was superior in 2001 (8.73 kg ha-1). Therefore, the combination of ryegrass followed by crabgrass may provide an effective forage-livestock management system in the southeastern states.