|Hogmire, Henry - PROF AT WEST VA UNIV|
Submitted to: Annual Cumberland Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: April 30, 2003
Publication Date: June 30, 2003
Citation: Hogmire, H., Leskey, T.C., Wright, S.E. 2003. Response of stink bugs to two trap types and common mullein in apples and peaches. Annual Cumberland Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conference. PP 76-87 Technical Abstract: Various species of stink bugs are major pests of peach, and more recently have been considered an increasingly important pest of apple. The potential for stink bugs to become even more damaging pests of apple could be influenced by further cancellations or restrictions of current pest management tools as the result of FQPA. Monitoring and management of stink bugs is especially challenging because of their high mobility and use of numerous weed hosts. Population monitoring by beating tray and sweep net sampling has typically not been well correlated with fruit injury. We tested two trap types; yellow pyramid traps deployed between trees and clear jar traps hung in tree canopies in the border rows of apple and peach orchards. Furthermore, we tested responses to the Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone in conjunction with each trap type; paired baited and unbaited traps were deployed and replicated three times at two sites (a commercial and an experimental peach and apple orchard). We also evaluated stink bug responses to common mullein, a favored weed host when baited with Euschistus pheromone lure or left unbaited. In the commercial apple orchard, the highest number of stink bugs was captured in baited pyramid traps. Significantly lower, but similar levels were captured in unbaited pyramid and baited jar traps. The fewest number of stink bugs were captured in unbaited jar traps, which was significantly less than was captured in baited jar traps. A similar pattern of stink bug capture was observed in apples in an experimental apple orchard, but there were no significant differences among the trap types. Stink bug capture in the commercial peach orchard was also highest for the baited pyramid trap, but levels were not significantly greater than those in unbaited pyramid or baited jar traps. No stink bugs were captured in unbaited jar traps in the commercial peach orchard. In the experimental peach orchard, there were no significant differences in stink bug capture among the trap types, with similar capture occurring only in baited pyramid and jar traps likely due to the lack of available fruit in canopies. A total of 186 stink bugs were captured in apples and peaches at both locations, with baited pyramids, unbaited pyramids, baited jars and unbaited jars accounting for 57, 18, 23 and 2 percent of the total capture, respectively. Brown stink bug represented 55 percent of all stink bugs captured on apples and peaches in both locations, with dusky, green and other representing 20, 16 and 9 percent, respectively. Brown stink bug was determined to be almost entirely (98%) E. servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven), with the remainder E. s. servus (Say). Dusky stink bugs were identified as E. tristigmus tristigmus (Say), except for one specimen which was E. t. luridus Dallas. Significantly more stink bugs were found on baited mullein than on unbaited mullein, with none found on mullein mimics. The mullein plants began to wilt soon after transplanting to pots, which may explain the lack of significant difference in number of stink bugs found on unbaited mullein versus mullein mimics.