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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Chromosomal Effect on Fiber and Agronomic Traits Utilizing Gossypium Barbadense Chromosome-Specific F2 Hybrid Population of G. Hirsutum

Authors
item Saha, Sukumar
item Jenkins, Johnie
item McCarty, Jack
item Wu, Jixiang - MISS STATE UNIVERSITY
item Gutierrez, Osman
item Cantrell, Roy - COTTON INC
item Percy, Richard
item Raska, Dwaine - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Stelly, David - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: World Cotton Research Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: March 9, 2003
Publication Date: May 1, 2004
Citation: Saha, S., Raska, D.A., Jenkins, J.N., McCarty Jr, J.C., Gutierrez, O.A., Percy, R.G., Cantrell, R.G., Wu, J., Zhu, J., Stelly, D.M. 2004. Effect of chromosome on important quantitative traits of agronomic and fiber traits using Gossypium barbadense chromosome-specific recombinant lines of Gossypium hirsutum. World Cotton Research Conference Proceedings. p. 170-174.

Interpretive Summary: The high value per hectare of cotton, and the demands in the global market for increased uniformity, strength, extensibility, and high quality of fibers clearly justify the importance of new and innovative approaches toward understanding genetic mechanisms controlling fiber qualities. Improving fiber properties in cotton has been accomplished primarily through conventional breeding methods. The improved fiber length, strength and fineness of Gossypium barbadense results in superior spinning and manufacturing performance. Attempts to incorporate genes from G. barbadense into Upland cotton have generally not achieved stable introgression of the G. barbadense fiber properties. An alternative approach to introgress G. barbadense fiber quality genes into an Upland background would be to rely on chromosome substitution lines. We developed a set of backcrossed chromosome substitution lines for different chromosomes in G. hirsutum (TM-1) of G. barbadense (3-79). These lines are genetically similar except that each differs by the replacement of a specific homologous pair of chromosomes from 3-79 into TM-1. Selfed seeds from cytologically identified euploid (normal 26 II chromosomes) backcrossed chromosome substitution lines were crossed with TM-1 to develop chromosome specific hybrids. Hybrid plants were selfed to develop chromosome specific F2 hybrid populations. Chromosome specific F2 hybrid populations for 14 different chromosomes of 3-79, TM-1 and 3-79 were planted in replicated test at three locations (Mississippi, New Mexico, Arizona ) for evaluation of agronomic and fiber properties based on bulk sample analysis of individual chromosome specific F2 hybrid populations in 2001. Our results indicated that several of the chromosome specific F2 hybrid populations showed improved fiber and agronomic properties compared to their parental lines. Chromosomes 18 and 22 of 3-79 significantly improved lint percent in TM-1 at all locations. Chromosome 25 of 3-79 produced significantly reduced micronaire at all locations and increased fiber strength at Mississippi and Arizona. The backcrossed chromosome substitution lines are not only useful to identify chromosomal locations of important quantitative traits, but may also be effective in improving Upland cotton.

Technical Abstract: The exceptional fiber length, strength and fineness of Pima and Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense. L.) give it a 30% to 50% price advantage over the more widely grown Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) because of its superior spinning and manufacturing performance. Attempts to incorporate genes from G. barbadense into Upland have generally not achieved stable introgression of the fiber properties due to incongruity between the genomes. We developed a set of backcrossed chromosome substitution lines for different chromosomes of G. barbadense (3-79) in G. hirsutum (TM-1) covering about 80% of the genome. Selfed seeds from cytologically identified euploid (normal 26 II chromosomes) backcrossed chromosome substitution lines were used for crossing with TM-1 to develop chromosome specific hybrids (F1). Hybrid plants were selfed to develop chromosome specific F2 hybrid populations. Fourteen chromosome specific F2 hybrid populations, TM-1 and 3-79 were planted in three replicated plots at three locations (Mississippi, New Mexico, and Arizona) in 2001 for evaluation of agronomic and fiber properties based on bulk sample analysis of individual lines. Considering that each substituted chromosome or chromosomal segment carried a significant fraction of the genetic factors from 3-79 and that all of the lines were in a similar Upland (TM-1) genetic background, the comparative results reflected the effects of traits associated with particular chromosomes. Results indicated that several chromosome specific F2 hybrid populations had superior fiber and agronomic properties compared to their parental lines. Chromosome 18 and 22 of 3-79 significantly improved lint percent in TM-1 at all locations. Chromosome 25 of 3-79 had significantly reduced micronaire at all locations and increased fiber strength at Mississippi and Arizona in TM-1. Several chromosome specific F2 hybrid populations had significantly lower fiber yield and decreased boll size compared to TM-1, suggesting that genes controlling fiber yield and boll size were located on many chromosomes. The chromosome specific F2 hybrid populations used in identifying chromosomal locations of important agronomic and fiber traits and the backcrossed chromosome substitution lines may be useful for improving germplasm of Upland cotton.

Last Modified: 4/23/2014
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