Submitted to: Diseases at the Interface between Domestic Livestock and Wildlife Species
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: May 10, 2003
Publication Date: July 17, 2003
Citation: Seal, B.S. 2003. Phylogenetic analyses among newcastle disease virus isolates from domestic and non-domestic avian species. Diseases at the Interface between Domestic Livestock and Wildlife Species. Technical Abstract: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is classified as avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV1), a member of the family Parmyxovirdae. This family is divided into the Paramyxovirinae and the Pneumovirinae. There are eight other serotypes among avian paramyxoviruses that infect primarily bird species. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses placed NDV and the other APMV types within the Avulavirus genus. NDV is an economically important pathogen of poultry with a worldwide distribution. Outbreaks of virulent forms are List A agents that require reporting to the Office of International Epizootes (OIE). Isolates from several different bird species with origins worldwide were phylogentically analyzed utilizing genomic nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences. Virulent NDV isolates recovered in the U.S. prior to 1970 only contained neurotropic viruses. All virulent velogenic NDV obtained after that were related to chicken/Australia/AV/32 as the earliest progenitor-type and related to viruses that included chicken/U.S./CA1083(Fontana)/72 and cormorant/U.S.(MN)/40068/92. This included viruses isolated from imported psittacines, poultry in Mexico during 1996 and the recent California isolate from the outbreak that began during the autumn of 2002. NDV isolates from pigeons, classified as pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1), clustered separate from other isolates phylogenetically. However, there were also pigeon and dove isolates that segregated with other APMV-1 isolates. Therefore, PPMV-1 may be circulating among Columbidae members as a distinct lineage, but they may also harbor a variety of NDV strains. A recent European dove isolate with an aberrant fusion protein cleavage site was an outlying member phylogenetically between the two major groups of APMV-1 isolates.