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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Use of Primitive Accessions in Cotton Improvement

Authors
item McCarty, Jack
item Jenkins, Johnie
item Wu, Jixiang - MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV

Submitted to: International Crop Science Congress Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 26, 2004
Publication Date: October 13, 2004
Citation: McCarty Jr., J.C., Jenkins, J.N., Wu, J. 2004. Use of primitive accessions in cotton improvement. In: Fischer, T., editor. Proceedings 4th International Crop Science Congress, September 26-October 1, 2004, Brisbane, Australia. 2004 CDROM.

Interpretive Summary: Cotton is an important crop that is grown throughout the world. Yield and quality need to be improved to ensure its economic viability. Genetic resources must be identified and utilized to make needed improvements. Primitive accessions of cotton are sources for useful traits. Since flowering response for most of these accessions is day-length dependent they are not readily useable. Day length-neutral lines have been developed and are being studied for use in cotton improvements programs. The study reported here involved crossing 114 day length-neutral lines as male parents with two cultivars, Stoneville 474 and Sure-Grow 747. Parents and second generation bulk populations were grown in field plots during 2001 and 2002 and agronomic and fiber traits were determined. The yield for most of the second generation bulks was not greater than that of the high yield cultivars. All male lines had lint percentage that was lower than the cultivars. The second generation bulks had fiber fineness and fiber strength that was better than the cultivars. The day length-neutral lines are a new source of genetic diversity that offers the potential to improve important fiber traits among cultivars. Their low lint percentage values must be considered when they are used as sources to develop improved cultivars.

Technical Abstract: Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is an important cultivated crop that is grown throughout the world. Improvements in agronomic trait performance and quality are needed to ensure its economic viability. To improve economic traits genetic resources must be identified and utilized. Primitive accessions of cotton offer a wealth of genetic variability; however, since most of these accessions are photoperiodic they are not readily useable in breeding programs. Day-neutral lines have been developed and are being studied for use in cotton improvement programs. The study reported herein involved crossing 114 day-neutral derived lines as male parents with two commercial cultivars, Stoneville 474 and Sure-Grow 747. Parents and F2-bulks were grown in field plots during 2001 and 2002 and agronomic and fiber traits were determined. The yield for most of the F2-bulks was not greater than that of the high yield cultivars. All male lines had lint percentages that were significantly lower than the cultivars. The F2-bulks had better fiber traits micronaire and fiber strength than the cultivars. These day-neutral derived accessions are a new source of genetic diversity that can be used in cotton breeding programs. They offer the potential to improve important fiber traits and expand genetic diversity among cultivars; however, their low lint percentages must be considered when they are used as sources to develop improved cultivars.

Last Modified: 12/21/2014
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