Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: April 1, 2004
Publication Date: May 2, 2004
Citation: Lim, C.E., Klesius, P.H. 2004. Use of alternative protein sources in diets of warmwater fish. 11th International Symposium on Nutrition and Feeding in Fish. May 2-7, 2004, Phuket Island, Thailand. p.30. Technical Abstract: Fish meal has been used as the major protein source for most aquaculture species because of its high protein content, excellent amino acid profile, high protein and amino acid digestibility, and high palatability. However, due to the increase demand, uncertain availability and rising cost of fish meal, much effort has been made by fish nutritionists to investigate the potential of using less expensive and more readily available protein sources as alternatives to fish meal. Animal byproduct meals (meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, poultry byproduct meal and feather meal) or their combination have been used successfully as partial or total replacement for fish meal depending on the species. Plant proteins (soybean meal, rapeseed/canola meal, lupin meal and cottonseed meal), because of their availability and low cost, are promising alternative protein sources in fish feeds. Studies have shown, however, that high dietary levels of these plant proteins usually result in reduced performance due to the reduction of feed consumption, essential amino acid deficiency, presence of antinutritional factors and indigestible components. Supplementation of deficient amino acids with crystalline amino acids, exogenous enzymes (phytase) and palatability enhancers have shown to increase feed consumption and improve the nutritional value of plant proteins.