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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Clinical and Pathologic Comparison of Acute Canane Leptospirosis Caused by Two Strains of Leptospira Kirschner Serval Grippotyphosa

Authors
item Greenlee, Justin - MI STATE UNIV
item Bolin, Carole - MI STATE UNIV
item Alt, David
item Cheville, Norman - IOWA STATE UNIV
item Andreasen, Claire - IOWA STATE UNIV

Submitted to: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 1, 2004
Publication Date: August 1, 2004
Citation: Greenlee, J., Bolin, C., Alt, D.P., Cheville, N., Andreasen, C. 2004. Clinical and pathologic comparison of acute canane leptospirosis caused by two strains of leptospira kirschner serval grippotyphosa. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 65(8):1100-7.

Interpretive Summary: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging disease of dogs. In the United States,disease in dogs has been traditionally associated with infection due to Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Infection with these serovars has been described experimentally. Vaccines containing these serovars has markedly reduced the incidence of infection, but until recently, vaccines available protected only against these serovars. In the past 10 years, increasing numbers of cases have been described with evidence to support involvement of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa and L. interrogans serovars Bratislava and Pomona. Features of disease, caused by these serovars, that may be serovar specific have not been well identified. Here, nine-week-old female beagle dogs were infected with one of two different Grippotyphosa isolates,(RM52 or strain 82) or were given culture medium alone. Dogs were euthanized and necropsies were done at selected times after infection or as needed due to severe, acute illness. Infected dogs developed consistent clinical signs, changes in blood chemistry values and developed tissue lesions in the kidney, liver and lung. Infection with strain 82 resulted in acute leptospirosis in all inoculated dogs, while only 21% of dogs inoculated with RM52 became infected. A model of acute leptospiral infection with L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa was developed that can be used to further study leptospiral infections as well as for studies evaluating vaccine effectiveness.

Technical Abstract: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging disease of dogs. In the United States, canine leptospirosis has been associated with Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae and has been described experimentally. Vaccines containing these serovars has markedly reduced the incidence of infection, but until recently, vaccines available protected only against these serovars. In the past 10 years, increasing numbers of cases have been described with evidence to support involvement of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa and L. interrogans serovars Bratislava and Pomona. Features of disease, caused by these serovars, that may be serovar specific have not been well identified. The purpose of this experiment was to develop a model of acute canine leptospirosis. Nine-week-old female beagle dogs were inoculated by conjunctival instillation with medium alone, or with one of two different Grippotyphosa isolates,(RM52 or strain 82). Dogs were euthanized and necropsies were done on days 7,14,22 and 28 post-inoculation or as needed due to severe, acute illness. Infected dogs developed signs including conjunctivitis, lethargy, diarrhea, dehydration, vomiting and icterus. Clinical pathology alterations included azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, increased anion gap, hyperbilirubinemeia, and increased alkaline phosphatase. Interstitial nephritits, renal tubular degeneration and necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and hepatic edema and perivasculitis were seen by histology. Conjunctival exposure to L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa strain 82 resulted in acute leptospirosis in all inoculated dogs, but only 21% of RM52 inoculated dogs became infected. A model of infection by L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa is described and will be used to further explore the pathogenesis of canine leptospriosis.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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